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NOTES

Source: U.S. Federal Housing Finance Agency  

Release: House Price Index  

Units:  Index 1980:Q1=100, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Frequency:  Quarterly

Notes:

Estimated using sales prices and appraisal data.

Suggested Citation:

U.S. Federal Housing Finance Agency, All-Transactions House Price Index for the United States [USSTHPI], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/USSTHPI, October 20, 2021.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau  

Source: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development  

Release: New Residential Sales  

Units:  Dollars, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Frequency:  Quarterly

Suggested Citation:

U.S. Census Bureau and U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Median Sales Price of Houses Sold for the United States [MSPUS], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/MSPUS, October 20, 2021.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics  

Release: Consumer Price Index  

Units:  Index 1982-1984=100, Seasonally Adjusted

Frequency:  Monthly

Notes:

The Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers: All Items (CPIAUCSL) is a measure of the average monthly change in the price for goods and services paid by urban consumers between any two time periods. It can also represent the buying habits of urban consumers. This particular index includes roughly 88 percent of the total population, accounting for wage earners, clerical workers, technical workers, self-employed, short-term workers, unemployed, retirees, and those not in the labor force.

The CPIs are based on prices for food, clothing, shelter, and fuels; transportation fares; service fees (e.g., water and sewer service); and sales taxes. Prices are collected monthly from about 4,000 housing units and approximately 26,000 retail establishments across 87 urban areas. To calculate the index, price changes are averaged with weights representing their importance in the spending of the particular group. The index measures price changes (as a percent change) from a predetermined reference date. In addition to the original unadjusted index distributed, the Bureau of Labor Statistics also releases a seasonally adjusted index. The unadjusted series reflects all factors that may influence a change in prices. However, it can be very useful to look at the seasonally adjusted CPI, which removes the effects of seasonal changes, such as weather, school year, production cycles, and holidays.

The CPI can be used to recognize periods of inflation and deflation. Significant increases in the CPI within a short time frame might indicate a period of inflation, and significant decreases in CPI within a short time frame might indicate a period of deflation. However, because the CPI includes volatile food and oil prices, it might not be a reliable measure of inflationary and deflationary periods. For a more accurate detection, the core CPI (CPILFESL) is often used. When using the CPI, please note that it is not applicable to all consumers and should not be used to determine relative living costs. Additionally, the CPI is a statistical measure vulnerable to sampling error since it is based on a sample of prices and not the complete average.

For more information on the consumer price indexes, see:
Bureau of Economic Analysis. "CPI Detailed Report." 2013.
Handbook of Methods
Understanding the CPI: Frequently Asked Questions

Suggested Citation:

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers: All Items in U.S. City Average [CPIAUCSL], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/CPIAUCSL, October 20, 2021.

Source: S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC  

Release: S&P/Case-Shiller Home Price Indices  

Units:  Index Jan 2000=100, Seasonally Adjusted

Frequency:  Monthly

Notes:

For more information regarding the index, please visit Standard & Poor's.

Copyright © 2016, S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC. All rights reserved. Reproduction of S&P Case-Shiller 10-City Home Price Index in any form is prohibited except with the prior written permission of S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC "S&P". S&P does not guarantee the accuracy, adequacy, completeness or availability of any information and is not responsible for any errors or omissions, regardless of the cause or for the results obtained from the use of such information. S&P DISCLAIMS ANY AND ALL EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ANY WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE. In no event shall S&P be liable for any direct, indirect, special or consequential damages, costs, expenses, legal fees, or losses (including lost income or lost profit and opportunity costs) in connection with subscriber's or others' user of S&P Case-Shiller 10-City Home Price Index.

Permission to reproduce this series can be requested from index_services@spdji.com. More contact details are available from http://us.spindices.com/contact-us/, including phone numbers for all of its regional offices.

Suggested Citation:

S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC, S&P/Case-Shiller 10-City Composite Home Price Index [SPCS10RSA], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/SPCS10RSA, October 20, 2021.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis  

Release: Personal Income and Outlays  

Units:  Billions of Dollars, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

Frequency:  Monthly

Notes:

BEA Account Code: A034RC
A Guide to the National Income and Product Accounts of the United States (NIPA) - (http://www.bea.gov/national/pdf/nipaguid.pdf)

Suggested Citation:

U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Compensation of Employees, Received: Wage and Salary Disbursements [A576RC1], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/A576RC1, October 20, 2021.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis  

Release: Personal Income and Outlays  

Units:  Thousands, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Frequency:  Monthly

Notes:

Population includes resident population plus armed forces overseas. The monthly estimate is the average of estimates for the first of the month and the first of the following month.
BEA Account Code: B230RC
A Guide to the National Income and Product Accounts of the United States (NIPA) - (http://www.bea.gov/national/pdf/nipaguid.pdf)

Suggested Citation:

U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Population [POPTHM], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/POPTHM, October 20, 2021.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics  

Release: Employment Situation  

Units:  Thousands of Persons, Seasonally Adjusted

Frequency:  Monthly

Notes:

The civilian noninstitutional population is defined as: persons 16 years of age and older residing in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, who are not inmates of institutions (e.g., penal and mental facilities, homes for the aged), and who are not on active duty in the Armed Forces.

The series comes from the 'Current Population Survey (Household Survey)'

The source code is: LNS12000000

Suggested Citation:

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Level [CE16OV], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/CE16OV, October 20, 2021.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis  

Release: Personal Income and Outlays  

Units:  Billions of Dollars, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

Frequency:  Monthly

Notes:

BEA Account Code: A067RC
A Guide to the National Income and Product Accounts of the United States (NIPA) - (http://www.bea.gov/national/pdf/nipaguid.pdf)

Suggested Citation:

U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Disposable Personal Income [DSPI], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/DSPI, October 20, 2021.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics  

Release: Employment Situation  

Units:  Thousands of Persons, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Frequency:  Monthly

Notes:

All Employees: Total Nonfarm, commonly known as Total Nonfarm Payroll, is a measure of the number of U.S. workers in the economy that excludes proprietors, private household employees, unpaid volunteers, farm employees, and the unincorporated self-employed. This measure accounts for approximately 80 percent of the workers who contribute to Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This measure provides useful insights into the current economic situation because it can represent the number of jobs added or lost in an economy. Increases in employment might indicate that businesses are hiring which might also suggest that businesses are growing. Additionally, those who are newly employed have increased their personal incomes, which means (all else constant) their disposable incomes have also increased, thus fostering further economic expansion. Generally, the U.S. labor force and levels of employment and unemployment are subject to fluctuations due to seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening and closing of schools. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) adjusts the data to offset the seasonal effects to show non-seasonal changes: for example, women's participation in the labor force; or a general decline in the number of employees, a possible indication of a downturn in the economy. To closely examine seasonal and non-seasonal changes, the BLS releases two monthly statistical measures: the seasonally adjusted All Employees: Total Nonfarm (PAYEMS) and All Employees: Total Nonfarm (PAYNSA), which is not seasonally adjusted.

The series comes from the 'Current Employment Statistics (Establishment Survey).'

The source code is: CEU0000000001

Suggested Citation:

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, All Employees, Total Nonfarm [PAYNSA], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/PAYNSA, October 20, 2021.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis  

Release: Personal Income and Outlays  

Units:  Billions of Chained 2012 Dollars, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

Frequency:  Monthly

Notes:

BEA Account Code: W875RX
A Guide to the National Income and Product Accounts of the United States (NIPA) - (http://www.bea.gov/national/pdf/nipaguid.pdf)

Suggested Citation:

U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Real personal income excluding current transfer receipts [W875RX1], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/W875RX1, October 20, 2021.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis  

Release: Personal Income and Outlays  

Units:  Billions of Chained 2012 Dollars, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

Frequency:  Monthly

Notes:

BEA Account Code: A067RX
AGuide to the National Income and Product Accounts of the United States (NIPA)

Suggested Citation:

U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Real Disposable Personal Income [DSPIC96], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/DSPIC96, October 20, 2021.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics  

Release: Employment Situation  

Units:  Thousands of Persons, Seasonally Adjusted

Frequency:  Monthly

Notes:

The series comes from the 'Current Population Survey (Household Survey)'

The source code is: LNS12000001

Suggested Citation:

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Level - Men [LNS12000001], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/LNS12000001, October 20, 2021.

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