Source: International Monetary Fund
Release: World Economic Outlook
Net lending (+)/ borrowing (-) is calculated as revenue minus total expenditure. This is a core Government Finance Statistics (GFS) balance that measures the extent to which general government is either putting financial resources at the disposal of other sectors in the economy and nonresidents (net lending), or utilizing the financial resources generated by other sectors and nonresidents (net borrowing). This balance may be viewed as an indicator of the financial impact of general government activity on the rest of the economy and nonresidents (Government Finance Statistics Manual 2001 (GFSM 2001), paragraph 4.17). Note: Net lending (+)/borrowing (-) is also equal to net acquisition of financial assets minus net incurrence of liabilities. A projection of this data can be found at https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/GGNLBPJPA188N.
International Monetary Fund, General government net lending/borrowing for Japan [GGNLBAJPA188N], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/GGNLBAJPA188N, October 6, 2022.