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  • Index 2013=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percentage Difference from Trend, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Approximate percent difference from trend. The HP filter was applied to the natural logarithm of GDP and the cyclical component was then multiplied by 100. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This measure uses a break-adjusted measure of nominal GDP as the denominator. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Calendar year average. This measure uses break-adjusted nominal GDP as the denominator. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Millions of Chained 2013 British Pounds, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Break-adjusted measure intended for users who need a series without classification or geographical breaks for use in appropriate econometric work where, for example, the series will be log-differenced or log-linearised around a trend. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Provided that the underlying sources of the data are acknowledged and cited appropriately users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it is based on Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Millions of British Pounds, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Break-adjusted measure intended for users who need a series without classification or geographical breaks for use in appropriate econometric work where, for example, the series will be log-differenced or log-linearised around a trend. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Millions of British Pounds, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This measure retains the level break in the series in 1920 resulting from the creation of South Ireland. This can be used for constructing ratios to nominal GDP if the user needs Southern Irish incomes to be included in the denominator prior to 1920. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Millions of Chained 2013 British Pounds, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Break-adjusted measure intended for users who need a series without classification or geographical breaks for use in appropriate econometric work where, for example, the series will be log-differenced or log-linearised around a trend. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This measure uses a lagged break-adjusted measure of nominal GDP as the denominator. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Calendar year average. Great Britain only before 1816. This measure uses a break-adjusted measure of nominal GDP as the denominator Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind the composite series in the relevant worksheets. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce these series in their own work as they represent Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project. For more information, please refer to https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Calendar year average. This measure uses a break-adjusted measure of nominal GDP as the denominator. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Calendar year average. This measure uses a break-adjusted measure of nominal GDP as the denominator. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percentage Points, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Percentage points contribution to GDP calculated within the historical chains of data. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Index 2013=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Calendar year average. This measure uses break-adjusted nominal GDP as the denominator. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Calendar year average. This measure uses break-adjusted nominal GDP as the denominator. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Millions of 1938 British Pounds, Monthly, Seasonally Adjusted

    This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Provided that the underlying sources of the data are acknowledged and cited appropriately users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it is based on Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Millions of 1938 British Pounds, Monthly, Seasonally Adjusted

    This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent Change from Preceding Period, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted

    This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Provided that the underlying sources of the data are acknowledged and cited appropriately users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it is based on Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent Change from Preceding Period, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted

    This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B4938C0 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4035C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4040C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4051C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4054C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4063C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4070C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4071C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4074C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4107C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4110C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4135C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4136C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4140C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4145C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4151C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4154C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4160C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4170C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4171C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2009=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B782RA3 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Thousands, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4335C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Thousands, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4336C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Thousands, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4340C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Thousands, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4342C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Thousands, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4345C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Thousands, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4350C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Thousands, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4354C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Thousands, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4355C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Thousands, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4360C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Thousands, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4362C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Thousands, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4363C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Thousands, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4373C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Thousands, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4374C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4406C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4409C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4426C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4430C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: H4434C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.


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