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  • Index 2013=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percentage Difference from Trend, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Approximate percent difference from trend. The HP filter was applied to the natural logarithm of GDP and the cyclical component was then multiplied by 100. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This measure uses a break-adjusted measure of nominal GDP as the denominator. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Calendar year average. This measure uses break-adjusted nominal GDP as the denominator. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Millions of Chained 2013 British Pounds, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Break-adjusted measure intended for users who need a series without classification or geographical breaks for use in appropriate econometric work where, for example, the series will be log-differenced or log-linearised around a trend. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Provided that the underlying sources of the data are acknowledged and cited appropriately users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it is based on Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Millions of British Pounds, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Break-adjusted measure intended for users who need a series without classification or geographical breaks for use in appropriate econometric work where, for example, the series will be log-differenced or log-linearised around a trend. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Millions of British Pounds, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This measure retains the level break in the series in 1920 resulting from the creation of South Ireland. This can be used for constructing ratios to nominal GDP if the user needs Southern Irish incomes to be included in the denominator prior to 1920. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Millions of Chained 2013 British Pounds, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Break-adjusted measure intended for users who need a series without classification or geographical breaks for use in appropriate econometric work where, for example, the series will be log-differenced or log-linearised around a trend. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This measure uses a lagged break-adjusted measure of nominal GDP as the denominator. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Calendar year average. Great Britain only before 1816. This measure uses a break-adjusted measure of nominal GDP as the denominator Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind the composite series in the relevant worksheets. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce these series in their own work as they represent Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project. For more information, please refer to https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Calendar year average. This measure uses a break-adjusted measure of nominal GDP as the denominator. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Calendar year average. This measure uses a break-adjusted measure of nominal GDP as the denominator. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percentage Points, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Percentage points contribution to GDP calculated within the historical chains of data. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Index 2013=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Calendar year average. This measure uses break-adjusted nominal GDP as the denominator. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Calendar year average. This measure uses break-adjusted nominal GDP as the denominator. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Millions of 1938 British Pounds, Monthly, Seasonally Adjusted

    This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Provided that the underlying sources of the data are acknowledged and cited appropriately users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it is based on Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Millions of 1938 British Pounds, Monthly, Seasonally Adjusted

    This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent Change from Preceding Period, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted

    This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Provided that the underlying sources of the data are acknowledged and cited appropriately users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it is based on Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent Change from Preceding Period, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted

    This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Index 2012=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: C020RA For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2012 Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: C020RX For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2012=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: C021RA For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2012 Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: C021RX For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2012=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: C027RA For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2012 Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: C027RX For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2012=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: C191RA For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2012 Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: C191RX For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: C263RC For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B1793C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B1794C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B1795C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This series has been discontinued and will no longer be updated. It was a duplicate of the following series, which will continue to be updated: https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/B179RC1A027NBEA BEA Account Code: B179RC0 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B179RC For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B1822C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B1825C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B1833C0 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B1841C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B185RC1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2009=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B188RA For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B188RC For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2005=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B189RA3 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B189RC1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2009=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B190RA3 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2012=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B190RG For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2009=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B191RA3 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2009=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B191RG3 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2012=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B193RA For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2012=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B193RG For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2012=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B195RA For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2012=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B195RG For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B2001C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B2002C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B2006C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B202RC For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B203RC1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B228RC For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Thousands, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Population includes resident population plus armed forces overseas. The annual estimate is constructed as an average of monthly series https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/POPTHM. BEA Account Code: B230RC

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B231RC For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.


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