The equivalent measure used here assigns a weight of 1.0 to all persons over 15, and 0.5 for those under age 15. For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: rgdpeqa

• National Currency Units per US Dollar, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Note: Over GDP, 1 US dollar (US\$) = 1 international dollar (I\$). Purchasing power parity is the number of currency units required to buy goods equivalent to what can be bought with one unit of the base country. We calculated our PPP over GDP. That is, our PPP is the national currency value of GDP divided by the real value of GDP in international dollars. International dollar has the same purchasing power over total U.S. GDP as the U.S. dollar in a given base year. For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: ppp

• 2005 International Dollars per Person, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

• Millions of International Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

• U.S.=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Price Level of GDP is the PPP over GDP divided by the exchange rate times 100. The PPP of GDP or any component is the national currency value divided by the real value in international dollars. The PPP and the exchange rate are both expressed as national currency units per US dollar.The value of price level of GDP for the United States is made equal to 100. Price Levels of the components Consumption, Investment, and Government are derived in the same way as the price level of GDP. While the U.S. = 100 over GDP, this is not true for the component shares. The purchasing power parity in domestic currency per \$US for GDP or any component, may be obtained by dividing the price level by 100 and multiplying by the Exchange Rate. For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: p2

• Percent of GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

• 2005 International Dollars per Person, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Series is obtained by adding up consumption, investment, government and exports, and subtracting imports in any given year. For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: rgdpl

• Percent of GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Demand, time and saving deposits in deposit money banks and other financial institutions as a share of GDP. Demand, time and saving deposits in deposit money banks and other financial institutions as a share of GDP, calculated using the following deflation method: {(0.5)*[Ft/P_et + Ft-1/P_et-1]}/[GDPt/P_at] where F is demand and time and saving deposits, P_e is end-of period CPI, and P_a is average annual CPI. Raw data are from the electronic version of the IMF's International Financial Statistics. Financial system deposits (IFS lines 24, 25, and 45); GDP in local currency (IFS line 99B..ZF or, if not available, line 99B.CZF); end-of period CPI (IFS line 64M..ZF or, if not available, 64Q..ZF); and annual CPI (IFS line 64..ZF). (International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics, and World Bank GDP estimates) Source Code: GFDD.DI.08

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Private credit by deposit money banks and other financial institutions to GDP. Private credit by deposit money banks and other financial institutions to GDP, calculated using the following deflation method: {(0.5)*[Ft/P_et + Ft-1/P_et-1]}/[GDPt/P_at] where F is credit to the private sector, P_e is end-of period CPI, and P_a is average annual CPI. Raw data are from the electronic version of the IMF's International Financial Statistics. Private credit by deposit money banks and other financial institutions (IFS lines 22d and 42d); GDP in local currency (IFS line 99B..ZF or, if not available, line 99B.CZF); end-of period CPI (IFS line 64M..ZF or, if not available, 64Q..ZF); and annual CPI (IFS line 64..ZF). (International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics) Source Code: GFDD.DI.12

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Workers' remittances and compensation of employees comprise current transfers by migrant workers and wages and salaries earned by nonresident workers. Data are the sum of three items defined in the fifth edition of the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual: workers' remittances, compensation of employees, and migrants' transfers. Remittances are classified as current private transfers from migrant workers resident in the host country for more than a year, irrespective of their immigration status, to recipients in their country of origin. Migrants' transfers are defined as the net worth of migrants who are expected to remain in the host country for more than one year that is transferred from one country to another at the time of migration. Compensation of employees is the income of migrants who have lived in the host country for less than a year. Source Code: GFDD.OI.13

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

The financial resources provided to the private sector by domestic money banks as a share of GDP. Domestic money banks comprise commercial banks and other financial institutions that accept transferable deposits, such as demand deposits. Private credit by deposit money banks and other financial institutions to GDP, calculated using the following deflation method: {(0.5)*[Ft/P_et + Ft-1/P_et-1]}/[GDPt/P_at] where F is credit to the private sector, P_e is end-of period CPI, and P_a is average annual CPI. Raw data are from the electronic version of the IMF's International Financial Statistics. Private credit by deposit money banks (IFS line 22d and FOSAOP); GDP in local currency (IFS line NGDP); end-of period CPI (IFS line PCPI); and average annual CPI is calculated using the monthly CPI values (IFS line PCPI). (International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics, and World Bank GDP estimates) Source Code: GFDD.DI.01

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Ratio of liquid liabilities to GDP. Liquid liabilities are also known as broad money, or M3. They are the sum of currency and deposits in the central bank (M0), plus transferable deposits and electronic currency (M1), plus time and savings deposits, foreign currency transferable deposits, certificates of deposit, and securities repurchase agreements (M2), plus travelers checks, foreign currency time deposits, commercial paper, and shares of mutual funds or market funds held by residents. Ratio of liquid liabilities to GDP, calculated using the following deflation method: {(0.5)*[Ft/P_et + Ft-1/P_et-1]}/[GDPt/P_at] where F is liquid liabilities, P_e is end-of period CPI, and P_a is average annual CPI. Raw data are from the electronic version of the IMF's International Financial Statistics. Liquid liabilities (IFS lines 55L..ZF or, if not available, line 35L..ZF); GDP in local currency (IFS line 99B..ZF or, if not available, line 99B.CZF); end-of period CPI (IFS line 64M..ZF or, if not available, 64Q..ZF); and annual CPI (IFS line 64..ZF). For Eurocurrency area countries (BEF, DEM, ESP, FRF, GRD, IEP, ITL, LUF, NLG, ATS, PTE, FIM), liquid liabilities are estimated by summing IFS items 34A, 34B and 35. (International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics, and World Bank GDP estimates) Source Code: GFDD.DI.05

• Percent of GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year. World Bank Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates. Source Indicator: GC.DOD.TOTL.GD.ZS

• 2005 International Dollars per Worker, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Worker for this variable is usually a census definition based of economically active population. For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: rgdpwok

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

The ratio of consolidated foreign claims to GDP of the banks that are reporting to BIS. Foreign claims are defined as the sum of cross-border claims plus foreign offices' local claims in all currencies. In the consolidated banking statistics claims that are granted or extended to nonresidents are referred to as either cross-border claims. In the context of the consolidated banking statistics, local claims refer to claims of domestic banks' foreign affiliates (branches/subsidiaries) on the residents of the host country (i.e. country of residence of affiliates). Source Code: GFDD.OI.14

• Percent of GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

• Percent of GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

• Ratio, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Source ID: labsh When using these data in your research, please make the following reference: Feenstra, Robert C., Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. Timmer (2015), "The Next Generation of the Penn World Table" American Economic Review, 105(10), 3150-3182, available for download at www.ggdc.net/pwt For more information, see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/.

• Price Level of USA Output-side GDP in 2017=1, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Source ID: pl_k When using these data in your research, please make the following reference: Feenstra, Robert C., Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. Timmer (2015), "The Next Generation of the Penn World Table" American Economic Review, 105(10), 3150-3182, available for download at www.ggdc.net/pwt For more information, see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/.

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Source ID: csh_r When using these data in your research, please make the following reference: Feenstra, Robert C., Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. Timmer (2015), "The Next Generation of the Penn World Table" American Economic Review, 105(10), 3150-3182, available for download at www.ggdc.net/pwt For more information, see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/.

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

The total value of demand, time and saving deposits at domestic deposit money banks as a share of GDP. Deposit money banks comprise commercial banks and other financial institutions that accept transferable deposits, such as demand deposits. Demand, time and saving deposits in deposit money banks as a share of GDP, calculated using the following deflation method: {(0.5)*[Ft/P_et + Ft-1/P_et-1]}/[GDPt/P_at] where F is demand and time and saving deposits, P_e is end-of period CPI, and P_a is average annual CPI. Raw data are from the electronic version of the IMF's International Financial Statistics. Bank deposits (IFS lines 24 and 25); GDP in local currency (IFS line 99B..ZF or, if not available, line 99B.CZF); end-of period CPI (IFS line 64M..ZF or, if not available, 64Q..ZF); and annual CPI (IFS line 64..ZF). (International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics, and World Bank GDP estimates) Source Code: GFDD.OI.02

• Percent of GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Cash surplus or deficit is revenue (including grants) minus expense, minus net acquisition of nonfinancial assets. In the 1986 GFS manual nonfinancial assets were included under revenue and expenditure in gross terms. This cash surplus or deficit is closest to the earlier overall budget balance (still missing is lending minus repayments, which are now a financing item under net acquisition of financial assets). World Bank sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates. Source Indicator: GC.BAL.CASH.GD.ZS

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Ratio of central bank assets to GDP. Central bank assets are claims on domestic real nonfinancial sector by the Central Bank. Claims on domestic real nonfinancial sector by the Central Bank as a share of GDP, calculated using the following deflation method: {(0.5)*[Ft/P_et + Ft-1/P_et-1]}/[GDPt/P_at] where F is Central Bank claims, P_e is end-of period CPI, and P_a is average annual CPI. Raw data are from the electronic version of the IMF's International Financial Statistics. Central Bank claims (IFS lines 12, a-d); GDP in local currency (IFS line 99B..ZF or, if not available, line 99B.CZF); end-of period CPI (IFS line 64M..ZF or, if not available, 64Q..ZF); and annual CPI (IFS line 64..ZF). (International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics, and World Bank GDP estimates) Source Code: GFDD.DI.06

• International Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

• International Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Ratio of non-Life insurance premium volume to GDP. Premium volume is the insurer's direct premiums earned (if Property/Casualty) or received (if Life/Health) during the previous calendar year. Premium data is taken from various issues of Sigma reports (Swiss Re). Data on GDP in US dollars is from the electronic version of the World Development Indicators. (Swiss Re, Sigma Reports) Source Code: GFDD.DI.10

• Percent of GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

• Percent of GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

• Percent of GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Ratio of outstanding offshore bank loans to GDP. An offshore bank is a bank located outside the country of residence of the depositor, typically in a low tax jurisdiction (or tax haven) that provides financial and legal advantages. Ratio of outstanding offshore bank loans to GDP. An offshore bank is a bank located outside the country of residence of the depositor, typically in a low tax jurisdiction (or tax haven) that provides financial and legal advantages. Offshore bank loan data from October 2008 version of BIS Statistical Appendix Table 7A: External loans and deposits of reporting banks vis-à-vis all sectors. Bank for International Settlements) Source Code: GFDD.OI.09

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Total assets held by deposit money banks as a share of GDP. Assets include claims on domestic real nonfinancial sector which includes central, state and local governments, nonfinancial public enterprises and private sector. Deposit money banks comprise commercial banks and other financial institutions that accept transferable deposits, such as demand deposits. Claims on domestic real nonfinancial sector by deposit money banks as a share of GDP, calculated using the following deflation method: {(0.5)*[Ft/P_et + Ft-1/P_et-1]}/[GDPt/P_at] where F is deposit money bank claims, P_e is end-of period CPI, and P_a is average annual CPI. Raw data are from the electronic version of the IMF's International Financial Statistics. Deposit money bank assets (IFS lines 22, a-d); GDP in local currency (IFS line 99B..ZF or, if not available, line 99B.CZF); end-of period CPI (IFS line 64M..ZF or, if not available, 64Q..ZF); and annual CPI (IFS line 64..ZF). (International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics, and World Bank GDP estimates) Source Code: GFDD.DI.02

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

• U.S.=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

This is the current per capita GDP expressed relative to the United State (US=100) in each year. For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: y2

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Total assets held by financial institutions that do not accept transferable deposits but that perform financial intermediation by accepting other types of deposits or by issuing securities or other liabilities that are close substitutes for deposits as a share of GDP. It covers institutions such as saving and mortgage loan institutions, post-office savings institution, building and loan associations, finance companies that accept deposits or deposit substitutes, development banks, and offshore banking institutions. Assets include claims on domestic real nonfinancial sector such as central-, state- and local government, nonfinancial public enterprises and private sector. Claims on domestic real nonfinancial sector by other financial institutions as a share of GDP, calculated using the following deflation method: {(0.5)*[Ft/P_et + Ft-1/P_et-1]}/[GDPt/P_at] where F is other financial institutions' claims, P_e is end-of period CPI, and P_a is average annual CPI. Raw data are from the electronic version of the IMF's International Financial Statistics. Non-bank financial institutions assets (IFS lines 42, a-d and h); GDP in local currency (IFS line 99B..ZF or, if not available, line 99B.CZF); end-of period CPI (IFS line 64M..ZF or, if not available, 64Q..ZF); and annual CPI (IFS line 64..ZF). (International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics, and World Bank GDP estimates) Source Code: GFDD.DI.03

• U.S.=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

This is the current per capita GDP expressed relative to the United State (US=100) in each year. For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: y

• Percent of GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

• 2005 International Dollars per Worker, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Worker for this variable is usually a census definition based of economically active population. For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: rgdpl2wok

• 2005 International Dollars per Person, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Ratio between credit by domestic money banks to the government and state-owned enterprises and GDP. Raw data are from the electronic version of the IMF's International Financial Statistics. IFS line 22A + line 22B + line 22C) / GDP. Local currency GDP is from IFS (line 99B..ZF or, if not available, line 99B.CZF). Missing observations are imputed by using GDP growth rates from World Development Indicators, instead of substituting the levels. This approach ensures a smoother GDP series. (International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics) Source Code: GFDD.EI.08

• U.S.=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Price Level of GDP is the PPP over GDP divided by the exchange rate times 100. The PPP of GDP or any component is the national currency value divided by the real value in international dollars. The PPP and the exchange rate are both expressed as national currency units per US dollar.The value of price level of GDP for the United States is made equal to 100. Price Levels of the components Consumption, Investment, and Government are derived in the same way as the price level of GDP. While the U.S. = 100 over GDP, this is not true for the component shares. The purchasing power parity in domestic currency per \$US for GDP or any component, may be obtained by dividing the price level by 100 and multiplying by the Exchange Rate. For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: p

• Percent of GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

• Percent of GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Annual data observations begin 8 years before the year of publication. Projected data include the year of publication and the subsequent 5 years. Data and projections presented are IMF staff forecast estimates as of September 18, 2015. Copyright © 2016, International Monetary Fund. Reprinted with permission. Complete terms of use and contact details are available at http://www.imf.org/external/terms.htm.

• Price Level of USA Output-side GDP in 2017=1, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Source ID: pl_g When using these data in your research, please make the following reference: Feenstra, Robert C., Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. Timmer (2015), "The Next Generation of the Penn World Table" American Economic Review, 105(10), 3150-3182, available for download at www.ggdc.net/pwt For more information, see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/.

• Percent of GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Annual data observations begin 8 years before the year of publication. Projected data include the year of publication and the subsequent 5 years. Data and projections presented are IMF staff forecast estimates as of September 18, 2015. Copyright © 2016, International Monetary Fund. Reprinted with permission. Complete terms of use and contact details are available at http://www.imf.org/external/terms.htm.

• Percent Change From Preceding Period, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Annual data observations begin 8 years before the year of publication. Projected data include the year of publication and the subsequent 5 years. Data and projections presented are IMF staff forecast estimates as of September 18, 2015. Copyright © 2016, International Monetary Fund. Reprinted with permission. Complete terms of use and contact details are available at http://www.imf.org/external/terms.htm.