• National Currency Units per US Dollar, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Note: Over GDP, 1 US dollar (US\$) = 1 international dollar (I\$). Purchasing power parity is the number of currency units required to buy goods equivalent to what can be bought with one unit of the base country. We calculated our PPP over GDP. That is, our PPP is the national currency value of GDP divided by the real value of GDP in international dollars. International dollar has the same purchasing power over total U.S. GDP as the U.S. dollar in a given base year. For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: ppp

• 2005 International Dollars per Worker, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Worker for this variable is usually a census definition based of economically active population. For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: rgdpwok

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: ci

• 2005 International Dollars per Person, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: rgdpl2

• U.S.=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Price Level of GDP is the PPP over GDP divided by the exchange rate times 100. The PPP of GDP or any component is the national currency value divided by the real value in international dollars. The PPP and the exchange rate are both expressed as national currency units per US dollar.The value of price level of GDP for the United States is made equal to 100. Price Levels of the components Consumption, Investment, and Government are derived in the same way as the price level of GDP. While the U.S. = 100 over GDP, this is not true for the component shares. The purchasing power parity in domestic currency per \$US for GDP or any component, may be obtained by dividing the price level by 100 and multiplying by the Exchange Rate. For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: p

• U.S.=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Price Level of GDP is the PPP over GDP divided by the exchange rate times 100. The PPP of GDP or any component is the national currency value divided by the real value in international dollars. The PPP and the exchange rate are both expressed as national currency units per US dollar.The value of price level of GDP for the United States is made equal to 100. Price Levels of the components Consumption, Investment, and Government are derived in the same way as the price level of GDP. While the U.S. = 100 over GDP, this is not true for the component shares. The purchasing power parity in domestic currency per \$US for GDP or any component, may be obtained by dividing the price level by 100 and multiplying by the Exchange Rate. For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: p2

• International Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: cgdp2

• 2005 International Dollars per Person, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: rgdpch

• U.S.=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

This is the current per capita GDP expressed relative to the United State (US=100) in each year. For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: y

• 2005 International Dollars per Worker, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Worker for this variable is usually a census definition based of economically active population. For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: rgdpl2wok

• International Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: cgdp

• 2005 International Dollars per Person, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Series is obtained by adding up consumption, investment, government and exports, and subtracting imports in any given year. For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: rgdpl

• 2005 International Dollars per Equivalent Adult, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

The equivalent measure used here assigns a weight of 1.0 to all persons over 15, and 0.5 for those under age 15. For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: rgdpeqa

• Millions of International Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: tcgdp

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: cc

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: kc

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: cg

• U.S.=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

This is the current per capita GDP expressed relative to the United State (US=100) in each year. For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: y2

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: ki

• Ratio, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Source ID: labsh When using these data in your research, please make the following reference: Feenstra, Robert C., Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. Timmer (2015), "The Next Generation of the Penn World Table" American Economic Review, 105(10), 3150-3182, available for download at www.ggdc.net/pwt For more information, see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/.

• Price Level of USA Output-side GDP in 2017=1, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Source ID: pl_g When using these data in your research, please make the following reference: Feenstra, Robert C., Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. Timmer (2015), "The Next Generation of the Penn World Table" American Economic Review, 105(10), 3150-3182, available for download at www.ggdc.net/pwt For more information, see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/.

• Millions of 2017 U.S. Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Source ID: rgdpe When using these data in your research, please make the following reference: Feenstra, Robert C., Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. Timmer (2015), "The Next Generation of the Penn World Table" American Economic Review, 105(10), 3150-3182, available for download at www.ggdc.net/pwt For more information, see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/.

• Millions of 2017 U.S. Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Source ID: rgdpo When using these data in your research, please make the following reference: Feenstra, Robert C., Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. Timmer (2015), "The Next Generation of the Penn World Table" American Economic Review, 105(10), 3150-3182, available for download at www.ggdc.net/pwt For more information, see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/.

• Millions of 2017 U.S. Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Source ID: cgdpe When using these data in your research, please make the following reference: Feenstra, Robert C., Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. Timmer (2015), "The Next Generation of the Penn World Table" American Economic Review, 105(10), 3150-3182, available for download at www.ggdc.net/pwt For more information, see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/.

• Price Level of USA Output-side GDP in 2017=1, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Source ID: pl_i When using these data in your research, please make the following reference: Feenstra, Robert C., Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. Timmer (2015), "The Next Generation of the Penn World Table" American Economic Review, 105(10), 3150-3182, available for download at www.ggdc.net/pwt For more information, see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/.

• Millions of 2017 U.S. Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Source ID: cgdpo When using these data in your research, please make the following reference: Feenstra, Robert C., Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. Timmer (2015), "The Next Generation of the Penn World Table" American Economic Review, 105(10), 3150-3182, available for download at www.ggdc.net/pwt For more information, see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/.

• Price Level of USA Output-side GDP in 2017=1, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Source ID: pl_c When using these data in your research, please make the following reference: Feenstra, Robert C., Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. Timmer (2015), "The Next Generation of the Penn World Table" American Economic Review, 105(10), 3150-3182, available for download at www.ggdc.net/pwt For more information, see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/.

• Millions of 2017 U.S. Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Source ID: rgdpna When using these data in your research, please make the following reference: Feenstra, Robert C., Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. Timmer (2015), "The Next Generation of the Penn World Table" American Economic Review, 105(10), 3150-3182, available for download at www.ggdc.net/pwt For more information, see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/.

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Source ID: csh_r When using these data in your research, please make the following reference: Feenstra, Robert C., Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. Timmer (2015), "The Next Generation of the Penn World Table" American Economic Review, 105(10), 3150-3182, available for download at www.ggdc.net/pwt For more information, see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/.

• Price Level of USA Output-side GDP in 2005=1, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Source ID: pl_gdpe When using these data in your research, please make the following reference: Feenstra, Robert C., Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. Timmer (2013), "The Next Generation of the Penn World Table" available for download at www.ggdc.net/pwt For more information, see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/.

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: kg

• Price Level of USA Output-side GDP in 2017=1, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Source ID: pl_gdpo When using these data in your research, please make the following reference: Feenstra, Robert C., Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. Timmer (2015), "The Next Generation of the Penn World Table" American Economic Review, 105(10), 3150-3182, available for download at www.ggdc.net/pwt For more information, see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/.

• Price Level of USA Output-side GDP in 2017=1, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Source ID: pl_x When using these data in your research, please make the following reference: Feenstra, Robert C., Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. Timmer (2015), "The Next Generation of the Penn World Table" American Economic Review, 105(10), 3150-3182, available for download at www.ggdc.net/pwt For more information, see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/.

• Price Level of USA Output-side GDP in 2017=1, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Source ID: pl_m When using these data in your research, please make the following reference: Feenstra, Robert C., Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. Timmer (2015), "The Next Generation of the Penn World Table" American Economic Review, 105(10), 3150-3182, available for download at www.ggdc.net/pwt For more information, see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/.

• Percentage of GDP, Quarterly, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Credit is provided by domestic banks, all other sectors of the economy and non-residents. The "private non-financial sector" includes non-financial corporations (both private-owned and public-owned), households and non-profit institutions serving households as defined in the System of National Accounts 2008. The series have quarterly frequency and capture the outstanding amount of credit at the end of the reference quarter. In terms of financial instruments, credit covers loans and debt securities.(1) The combination of different sources and data from various methodological frameworks resulted in breaks in the series. The BIS is therefore, in addition, publishing a second set of series adjusted for breaks, which covers the same time span as the unadjusted series. The break-adjusted series are the result of the BIS's own calculations, and were obtained by adjusting levels through standard statistical techniques described in the special feature on the long credit series of the March 2013 issue of the BIS Quarterly Review at https://www.bis.org/publ/qtrpdf/r_qt1303h.htm. (1) Source Code: Q:IN:P:B:M:770:A (1) Bank for International Settlements. "Long series on credit to private non-financial ://www.bis.org/statistics/credtopriv.htm Copyright, 2016, Bank for International Settlements (BIS). Terms and conditions of use are available at http://www.bis.org/terms_conditions.htm#Copyright_and_Permissions. Unless otherwise specified, series values are market values.

• Percentage of GDP, Quarterly, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Credit is provided by domestic banks, all other sectors of the economy and non-residents. The "private non-financial sector" includes non-financial corporations (both private-owned and public-owned), households and non-profit institutions serving households as defined in the System of National Accounts 2008. The series have quarterly frequency and capture the outstanding amount of credit at the end of the reference quarter. In terms of financial instruments, credit covers loans and debt securities.(1) The combination of different sources and data from various methodological frameworks resulted in breaks in the series. The BIS is therefore, in addition, publishing a second set of series adjusted for breaks, which covers the same time span as the unadjusted series. The break-adjusted series are the result of the BIS's own calculations, and were obtained by adjusting levels through standard statistical techniques described in the special feature on the long credit series of the March 2013 issue of the BIS Quarterly Review at https://www.bis.org/publ/qtrpdf/r_qt1303h.htm. (1) Source Code: Q:IN:P:A:M:770:A (1) Bank for International Settlements. "Long series on credit to private non-financial ://www.bis.org/statistics/credtopriv.htm Copyright, 2016, Bank for International Settlements (BIS). Terms and conditions of use are available at http://www.bis.org/terms_conditions.htm#Copyright_and_Permissions. Unless otherwise specified, series values are market values.

• Price Level of USA Output-side GDP in 2017=1, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Source ID: pl_k When using these data in your research, please make the following reference: Feenstra, Robert C., Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. Timmer (2015), "The Next Generation of the Penn World Table" American Economic Review, 105(10), 3150-3182, available for download at www.ggdc.net/pwt For more information, see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/.

• 2005 International Dollars per Person Counted in Total Employment, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: rgdpl2te

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

For more information and proper citation see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.1 Source Indicator: cgnp

• Current U.S. Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Source Code: NY.GDP.MKTP.CD

• 2010 U.S. Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.

• Current U.S. Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source Code: NY.GDP.PCAP.CD

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Total assets held by financial institutions that do not accept transferable deposits but that perform financial intermediation by accepting other types of deposits or by issuing securities or other liabilities that are close substitutes for deposits as a share of GDP. It covers institutions such as saving and mortgage loan institutions, post-office savings institution, building and loan associations, finance companies that accept deposits or deposit substitutes, development banks, and offshore banking institutions. Assets include claims on domestic real nonfinancial sector such as central-, state- and local government, nonfinancial public enterprises and private sector. Claims on domestic real nonfinancial sector by other financial institutions as a share of GDP, calculated using the following deflation method: {(0.5)*[Ft/P_et + Ft-1/P_et-1]}/[GDPt/P_at] where F is other financial institutions' claims, P_e is end-of period CPI, and P_a is average annual CPI. Raw data are from the electronic version of the IMF's International Financial Statistics. Non-bank financial institutions assets (IFS lines 42, a-d and h); GDP in local currency (IFS line 99B..ZF or, if not available, line 99B.CZF); end-of period CPI (IFS line 64M..ZF or, if not available, 64Q..ZF); and annual CPI (IFS line 64..ZF). (International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics, and World Bank GDP estimates) Source Code: GFDD.DI.03

• Percentage of GDP, Quarterly, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Credit is provided by domestic banks, all other sectors of the economy and non-residents. The "private non-financial sector" includes non-financial corporations (both private-owned and public-owned), households and non-profit institutions serving households as defined in the System of National Accounts 2008. The series have quarterly frequency and capture the outstanding amount of credit at the end of the reference quarter. In terms of financial instruments, credit covers loans and debt securities.(1) The combination of different sources and data from various methodological frameworks resulted in breaks in the series. The BIS is therefore, in addition, publishing a second set of series adjusted for breaks, which covers the same time span as the unadjusted series. The break-adjusted series are the result of the BIS's own calculations, and were obtained by adjusting levels through standard statistical techniques described in the special feature on the long credit series of the March 2013 issue of the BIS Quarterly Review at https://www.bis.org/publ/qtrpdf/r_qt1303h.htm. (1) Source Code: Q:IN:C:A:M:770:A (1) Bank for International Settlements. "Long series on credit to private non-financial ://www.bis.org/statistics/credtopriv.htm Copyright, 2016, Bank for International Settlements (BIS). Terms and conditions of use are available at http://www.bis.org/terms_conditions.htm#Copyright_and_Permissions. Unless otherwise specified, series values are market values.

• Percentage of GDP, Quarterly, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Credit is provided by domestic banks, all other sectors of the economy and non-residents. The "private non-financial sector" includes non-financial corporations (both private-owned and public-owned), households and non-profit institutions serving households as defined in the System of National Accounts 2008. The series have quarterly frequency and capture the outstanding amount of credit at the end of the reference quarter. In terms of financial instruments, credit covers loans and debt securities.(1) The combination of different sources and data from various methodological frameworks resulted in breaks in the series. The BIS is therefore, in addition, publishing a second set of series adjusted for breaks, which covers the same time span as the unadjusted series. The break-adjusted series are the result of the BIS's own calculations, and were obtained by adjusting levels through standard statistical techniques described in the special feature on the long credit series of the March 2013 issue of the BIS Quarterly Review at https://www.bis.org/publ/qtrpdf/r_qt1303h.htm. (1) Source Code: Q:IN:G:A:N:770:A (1) Bank for International Settlements. "Long series on credit to private non-financial ://www.bis.org/statistics/credtopriv.htm Copyright, 2016, Bank for International Settlements (BIS). Terms and conditions of use are available at http://www.bis.org/terms_conditions.htm#Copyright_and_Permissions.

• Percent of GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Net lending (+)/ borrowing (-) is calculated as revenue minus total expenditure. This is a core Government Finance Statistics (GFS) balance that measures the extent to which general government is either putting financial resources at the disposal of other sectors in the economy and nonresidents (net lending), or utilizing the financial resources generated by other sectors and nonresidents (net borrowing). This balance may be viewed as an indicator of the financial impact of general government activity on the rest of the economy and nonresidents (Government Finance Statistics Manual 2001 (GFSM 2001), paragraph 4.17). Note: Net lending (+)/borrowing (-) is also equal to net acquisition of financial assets minus net incurrence of liabilities. A projection of this data can be found at https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/GGNLBPINA188N. Copyright © 2016, International Monetary Fund. Reprinted with permission. Complete terms of use and contact details are available at http://www.imf.org/external/terms.htm.

• Percent of GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Cash surplus or deficit is revenue (including grants) minus expense, minus net acquisition of nonfinancial assets. In the 1986 GFS manual nonfinancial assets were included under revenue and expenditure in gross terms. This cash surplus or deficit is closest to the earlier overall budget balance (still missing is lending minus repayments, which are now a financing item under net acquisition of financial assets). World Bank sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates. Source Indicator: GC.BAL.CASH.GD.ZS

• Percent Change, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Annual data observations begin 3 years before publication. Projected data include the year of publication and the subsequent 5 years. The data and projections presented are forecasted estimates by the IMF staff based on data available through early September 2015. Copyright © 2016, International Monetary Fund. Reprinted with permission. Complete terms of use and contact details are available at http://www.imf.org/external/terms.htm.

• Percent of GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Annual data observations begin 3 years before publication. Projected data include the year of publication and the subsequent 5 years. The data and projections presented are forecasted estimates by the IMF staff based on data available through early September 2015. Copyright © 2016, International Monetary Fund. Reprinted with permission. Complete terms of use and contact details are available at http://www.imf.org/external/terms.htm.

• Percent of Fiscal Year GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Annual data observations begin 3 years before publication. Projected data include the year of publication and the subsequent 5 years. The data and projections presented are forecasted estimates by the IMF staff based on data available through early September 2015. Copyright © 2016, International Monetary Fund. Reprinted with permission. Complete terms of use and contact details are available at http://www.imf.org/external/terms.htm.