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  • Percentage Difference from Trend, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Approximate percent difference from trend. The HP filter was applied to the natural logarithm of GDP and the cyclical component was then multiplied by 100. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Index 2013=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Millions of British Pounds, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Break-adjusted measure intended for users who need a series without classification or geographical breaks for use in appropriate econometric work where, for example, the series will be log-differenced or log-linearised around a trend. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Millions of British Pounds, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This measure retains the level break in the series in 1920 resulting from the creation of South Ireland. This can be used for constructing ratios to nominal GDP if the user needs Southern Irish incomes to be included in the denominator prior to 1920. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This measure uses a break-adjusted measure of nominal GDP as the denominator. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Calendar year average. This measure uses break-adjusted nominal GDP as the denominator. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Millions of Chained 2013 British Pounds, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Break-adjusted measure intended for users who need a series without classification or geographical breaks for use in appropriate econometric work where, for example, the series will be log-differenced or log-linearised around a trend. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Millions of Chained 2013 British Pounds, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Break-adjusted measure intended for users who need a series without classification or geographical breaks for use in appropriate econometric work where, for example, the series will be log-differenced or log-linearised around a trend. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Provided that the underlying sources of the data are acknowledged and cited appropriately users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it is based on Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This measure uses a lagged break-adjusted measure of nominal GDP as the denominator. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Calendar year average. Great Britain only before 1816. This measure uses a break-adjusted measure of nominal GDP as the denominator Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind the composite series in the relevant worksheets. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce these series in their own work as they represent Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project. For more information, please refer to https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Calendar year average. This measure uses a break-adjusted measure of nominal GDP as the denominator. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percentage Points, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Percentage points contribution to GDP calculated within the historical chains of data. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Calendar year average. This measure uses a break-adjusted measure of nominal GDP as the denominator. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Index 2013=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Calendar year average. This measure uses break-adjusted nominal GDP as the denominator. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Calendar year average. This measure uses break-adjusted nominal GDP as the denominator. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Millions of 1938 British Pounds, Monthly, Seasonally Adjusted

    This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Millions of 1938 British Pounds, Monthly, Seasonally Adjusted

    This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Provided that the underlying sources of the data are acknowledged and cited appropriately users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it is based on Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent Change from Preceding Period, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted

    This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent Change from Preceding Period, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted

    This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Provided that the underlying sources of the data are acknowledged and cited appropriately users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it is based on Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A998RC For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A120RC1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A1400C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A1401C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A1402C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A1403C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A150RC For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A153RC For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A154RC For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A1580C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A1585C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A1588C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A1594C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A1596C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This series has been discontinued and will no longer be updated. It was a duplicate of the following series, which will continue to be updated: https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/A1627C1A027NBEA BEA Account Code: A1627C0 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A1627C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A1629C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A1670C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A1676C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A1680C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A1684C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A1700C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A1717C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A1830C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A184RC1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A1850C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A191RE For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2009=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A2000A For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A2000C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2009=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A2000G For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2009=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A2001A For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A2001C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2009=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A2001G For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2009=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A2003A For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A2003C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2009=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A2003G For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A2006C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2009=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A2007A For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A2007C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.


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