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  • Percentage Difference from Trend, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Approximate percent difference from trend. The HP filter was applied to the natural logarithm of GDP and the cyclical component was then multiplied by 100. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Index 2013=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Millions of Chained 2013 British Pounds, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Break-adjusted measure intended for users who need a series without classification or geographical breaks for use in appropriate econometric work where, for example, the series will be log-differenced or log-linearised around a trend. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Millions of Chained 2013 British Pounds, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Break-adjusted measure intended for users who need a series without classification or geographical breaks for use in appropriate econometric work where, for example, the series will be log-differenced or log-linearised around a trend. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Provided that the underlying sources of the data are acknowledged and cited appropriately users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it is based on Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This measure uses a break-adjusted measure of nominal GDP as the denominator. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Calendar year average. This measure uses break-adjusted nominal GDP as the denominator. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Millions of British Pounds, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Break-adjusted measure intended for users who need a series without classification or geographical breaks for use in appropriate econometric work where, for example, the series will be log-differenced or log-linearised around a trend. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Millions of British Pounds, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This measure retains the level break in the series in 1920 resulting from the creation of South Ireland. This can be used for constructing ratios to nominal GDP if the user needs Southern Irish incomes to be included in the denominator prior to 1920. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This measure uses a lagged break-adjusted measure of nominal GDP as the denominator. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Calendar year average. Great Britain only before 1816. This measure uses a break-adjusted measure of nominal GDP as the denominator Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind the composite series in the relevant worksheets. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce these series in their own work as they represent Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project. For more information, please refer to https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Calendar year average. This measure uses a break-adjusted measure of nominal GDP as the denominator. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percentage Points, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Percentage points contribution to GDP calculated within the historical chains of data. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Calendar year average. This measure uses a break-adjusted measure of nominal GDP as the denominator. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Index 2013=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Calendar year average. This measure uses break-adjusted nominal GDP as the denominator. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent of Nominal GDP, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Calendar year average. This measure uses break-adjusted nominal GDP as the denominator. This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Millions of 1938 British Pounds, Monthly, Seasonally Adjusted

    This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Millions of 1938 British Pounds, Monthly, Seasonally Adjusted

    This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Provided that the underlying sources of the data are acknowledged and cited appropriately users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it is based on Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent Change from Preceding Period, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted

    This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent Change from Preceding Period, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted

    This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Provided that the underlying sources of the data are acknowledged and cited appropriately users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it is based on Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A823RE For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A824RE For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A825RE For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A829RE For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A831RC For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A832RC For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A843RC For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A844RC For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2005=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A871RA3 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A871RC1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2005=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A871RG3 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A872RC1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A873RC1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2009=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A882RA For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A882RC For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2009=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A882RG For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2009=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A883RA For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A883RC For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2009=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A883RG For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2009=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A886RA For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A886RC For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2009=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A886RG For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2005=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A888RA3 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2005=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A888RG3 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2009=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A889RA For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A894RC For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2009=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A895RA For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A900RC1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Index 2005=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A901RA3 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A901RC1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A902RC1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2012 Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A969RX For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A006RE For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A007RE For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A008RE For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2012 Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A266RX For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A3052C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A3152C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Millions of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: A3202C For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.


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