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  • +1 or 0, Quarterly, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    The series assigns dates to U.S. recessions based on a mathematical model of the way that recessions differ from expansions. Whereas the NBER business cycle dates are based on a subjective assessment of a variety of indicators, the dates here are entirely mechanical and are calculated solely from historically reported GDP data. Whenever the GDP-based recession indicator index rises above 67%, the economy is determined to be in a recession. The date that the recession is determined to have begun is the first quarter prior to that date for which the inference from the mathematical model using all data available at that date would have been above 50%. The next time the GDP-based recession indicator index falls below 33%, the recession is determined to be over, and the last quarter of the recession is the first quarter for which the inference from the mathematical model using all available data at that date would have been below 50%. For more information about this series visit http://econbrowser.com/recession-index.

  • 2013=1, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted

    This series was constructed by the Bank of England as part of the Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data project by combining data from a number of academic and official sources. For more information, please refer to the Three Centuries spreadsheet at https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/research-datasets. Users are advised to check the underlying assumptions behind this series in the relevant worksheets of the spreadsheet. In many cases alternative assumptions might be appropriate. Users are permitted to reproduce this series in their own work as it represents Bank calculations and manipulations of underlying series that are the copyright of the Bank of England provided that underlying sources are cited appropriately. For appropriate citation please see the Three Centuries spreadsheet for guidance and a list of the underlying sources.

  • Annualized Percent Change from Preceding Period, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted

    The Brave-Butters-Kelley Indexes (BBKI) are a research project of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. The BBK Coincident and Leading Indexes and Monthly GDP Growth for the U.S. are constructed from a collapsed dynamic factor analysis of a panel of 500 monthly measures of real economic activity and quarterly real GDP growth. The BBK Monthly GDP Growth is indexed to the quarterly estimates of real GDP growth from the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis and consists of three components: cycle, trend, and irregular components. This quarterly series is aggregated from the monthly version of the series (BBKMGDP) (https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/BBKMGDP), using the triangle average described in Brave, Butters, and Kelley (2019) (https://www.chicagofed.org/publications/economic-perspectives/2019/1) to approximate quarterly annualized (log) percent changes from the monthly series. For more details, see also: Brave, Scott A., Ross Cole, and David Kelley, 2019, A 'big data' view of the U.S. economy: Introducing the Brave-Butters-Kelley Indexes (https://www.chicagofed.org/publications/chicago-fed-letter/2019/422), Chicago Fed Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, No. 422. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.21033/cfl-2019-422 Brave, Scott A., R. Andrew Butters, and David Kelley, 2019, A new 'big data' index of U.S. economic activity (https://www.chicagofed.org/publications/economic-perspectives/2019/1), Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, Vol. 43, No. 1. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.21033/ep-2019-1

  • Annualized Percent Change from Preceding Period, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted

    The Brave-Butters-Kelley Indexes (BBKI) are a research project of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. The BBK Coincident and Leading Indexes and Monthly GDP Growth for the U.S. are constructed from a collapsed dynamic factor analysis of a panel of 500 monthly measures of real economic activity and quarterly real GDP growth. The trend component of GDP is expressed in annualized real GDP growth equivalent units. This quarterly series is aggregated from the monthly version of the series (BBKMTRD) (https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/BBKMTRD), using the triangle average described in Brave, Butters, and Kelley (2019) (https://www.chicagofed.org/publications/economic-perspectives/2019/1) to approximate quarterly annualized (log) percent changes from the monthly series. For more details, see also: Brave, Scott A., Ross Cole, and David Kelley, 2019, A 'big data' view of the U.S. economy: Introducing the Brave-Butters-Kelley Indexes (https://www.chicagofed.org/publications/chicago-fed-letter/2019/422), Chicago Fed Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, No. 422. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.21033/cfl-2019-422 Brave, Scott A., R. Andrew Butters, and David Kelley, 2019, A new 'big data' index of U.S. economic activity (https://www.chicagofed.org/publications/economic-perspectives/2019/1), Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, Vol. 43, No. 1. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.21033/ep-2019-1

  • Annualized Percent Change from Preceding Period, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted

    The Brave-Butters-Kelley Indexes (BBKI) are a research project of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. The BBK Coincident and Leading Indexes and Monthly GDP Growth for the U.S. are constructed from a collapsed dynamic factor analysis of a panel of 500 monthly measures of real economic activity and quarterly real GDP growth. The irregular component of GDP is expressed in annualized real GDP growth equivalent units. This quarterly series is aggregated from the monthly version of the series (BBKMIR) (https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/BBKMIR), using the triangle average described in Brave, Butters, and Kelley (2019) (https://www.chicagofed.org/publications/economic-perspectives/2019/1) to approximate quarterly annualized (log) percent changes from the monthly series. For more details, see also: Brave, Scott A., Ross Cole, and David Kelley, 2019, A 'big data' view of the U.S. economy: Introducing the Brave-Butters-Kelley Indexes (https://www.chicagofed.org/publications/chicago-fed-letter/2019/422), Chicago Fed Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, No. 422. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.21033/cfl-2019-422 Brave, Scott A., R. Andrew Butters, and David Kelley, 2019, A new 'big data' index of U.S. economic activity (https://www.chicagofed.org/publications/economic-perspectives/2019/1), Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, Vol. 43, No. 1. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.21033/ep-2019-1

  • Annualized Percent Change from Preceding Period, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted

    The Brave-Butters-Kelley Indexes (BBKI) are a research project of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. The BBK Coincident and Leading Indexes and Monthly GDP Growth for the U.S. are constructed from a collapsed dynamic factor analysis of a panel of 500 monthly measures of real economic activity and quarterly real GDP growth. The cycle component of GDP is expressed in annualized real GDP growth equivalent units. The cycle component is the sum of the leading and lagging subcomponents. This quarterly series is aggregated from the monthly version of the series (BBKMCY) (https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/BBKMCY), using the triangle average described in Brave, Butters, and Kelley (2019) (https://www.chicagofed.org/publications/economic-perspectives/2019/1) to approximate quarterly annualized (log) percent changes from the monthly series. For more details, see also: Brave, Scott A., Ross Cole, and David Kelley, 2019, A 'big data' view of the U.S. economy: Introducing the Brave-Butters-Kelley Indexes (https://www.chicagofed.org/publications/chicago-fed-letter/2019/422), Chicago Fed Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, No. 422. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.21033/cfl-2019-422 Brave, Scott A., R. Andrew Butters, and David Kelley, 2019, A new 'big data' index of U.S. economic activity (https://www.chicagofed.org/publications/economic-perspectives/2019/1), Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, Vol. 43, No. 1. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.21033/ep-2019-1

  • Annualized Percent Change from Preceding Period, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted

    The Brave-Butters-Kelley Indexes (BBKI) are a research project of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. The BBK Coincident and Leading Indexes and Monthly GDP Growth for the U.S. are constructed from a collapsed dynamic factor analysis of a panel of 500 monthly measures of real economic activity and quarterly real GDP growth. The leading subcomponent of the cycle is expressed in annualized real GDP growth equivalent units. The cycle component is the sum of the leading and lagging subcomponents. This quarterly series is aggregated from the monthly version of the series (BBKMCLE) (https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/BBKMCLE), using the triangle average described in Brave, Butters, and Kelley (2019) (https://www.chicagofed.org/publications/economic-perspectives/2019/1) to approximate quarterly annualized (log) percent changes from the monthly series. For more details, see also: Brave, Scott A., Ross Cole, and David Kelley, 2019, A 'big data' view of the U.S. economy: Introducing the Brave-Butters-Kelley Indexes (https://www.chicagofed.org/publications/chicago-fed-letter/2019/422), Chicago Fed Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, No. 422. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.21033/cfl-2019-422 Brave, Scott A., R. Andrew Butters, and David Kelley, 2019, A new 'big data' index of U.S. economic activity (https://www.chicagofed.org/publications/economic-perspectives/2019/1), Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, Vol. 43, No. 1. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.21033/ep-2019-1

  • Annualized Percent Change from Preceding Period, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted

    The Brave-Butters-Kelley Indexes (BBKI) are a research project of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. The BBK Coincident and Leading Indexes and Monthly GDP Growth for the U.S. are constructed from a collapsed dynamic factor analysis of a panel of 500 monthly measures of real economic activity and quarterly real GDP growth. The lagging subcomponent of the cycle expressed in annualized real GDP growth equivalent units. The cycle component is the sum of the leading and lagging subcomponents. This quarterly series is aggregated from the monthly version of the series (BBKMCLA) (https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/BBKMCLA), using the triangle average described in Brave, Butters, and Kelley (2019) (https://www.chicagofed.org/publications/economic-perspectives/2019/1) to approximate quarterly annualized (log) percent changes from the monthly series. For more details, see also: Brave, Scott A., Ross Cole, and David Kelley, 2019, A 'big data' view of the U.S. economy: Introducing the Brave-Butters-Kelley Indexes (https://www.chicagofed.org/publications/chicago-fed-letter/2019/422), Chicago Fed Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, No. 422. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.21033/cfl-2019-422 Brave, Scott A., R. Andrew Butters, and David Kelley, 2019, A new 'big data' index of U.S. economic activity (https://www.chicagofed.org/publications/economic-perspectives/2019/1), Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, Vol. 43, No. 1. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.21033/ep-2019-1

  • Argentine Peso, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted

    OECD descriptor ID: NAEXCP01 OECD unit ID: STSA OECD country ID: ARG All OECD data should be cited as follows: OECD,"Main Economic Indicators - complete database"Main Economic Indicators(database)http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/data-00052-en(Accessed on date)Copyright, 2016, OECD. Reprinted with permission.

  • Australian Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted

    Copyright, 2016, OECD. Reprinted with permission. All OECD data should be cited as follows: OECD (2010), "Main Economic Indicators - complete database", Main Economic Indicators (database),http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/data-00052-en (Accessed on date)

  • Billions of 2012 US Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    BEA Account Code: LB000003 Final sales to domestic purchasers less government consumption expenditures and gross investment.For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2005 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    BEA Account Code: B878RX1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2005 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    BEA Account Code: B880RX1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2005 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    BEA Account Code: A871RX1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2005 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    BEA Account Code: A873RX1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2005 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    BEA Account Code: B010RX1 A Guide to the National Income and Product Accounts of the United States (NIPA) - (http://www.bea.gov/national/pdf/nipaguid.pdf)

  • Billions of Chained 2005 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    BEA Account Code: B784RX1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2005 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    BEA Account Code: A872RX1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2005 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    BEA Account Code: B881RX1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2005 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    BEA Account Code: A327RX1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2005 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    A Guide to the National Income and Product Accounts of the United States (NIPA) - (http://www.bea.gov/national/pdf/nipaguid.pdf)

  • Billions of Chained 2009 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    BEA Account Code: B769RX1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2009 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    BEA Account Code: B770RX1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2009 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    BEA Account Code: B683RX1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2009 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    This series has been discontinued and will no longer be updated. It was a duplicate of the following series, which will continue to be updated: https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/SLCEC1 A Guide to the National Income and Product Accounts of the United States (NIPA) - (http://www.bea.gov/national/pdf/nipaguid.pdf)

  • Billions of Chained 2009 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    This series has been discontinued and will no longer be updated. It was a duplicate of the following series, which will continue to be updated: https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/PRFIC1 A Guide to the National Income and Product Accounts of the United States (NIPA) - (http://www.bea.gov/national/pdf/nipaguid.pdf)

  • Billions of Chained 2009 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    BEA Account Code: B267RX1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2009 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    BEA Account Code: B493RX1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2009 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    This series has been discontinued and will no longer be updated. It was a duplicate of the following series, which will continue to be updated: https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/EXPGSC1 A Guide to the National Income and Product Accounts of the United States (NIPA) - (http://www.bea.gov/national/pdf/nipaguid.pdf)

  • Billions of Chained 2009 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    This series has been discontinued and will no longer be updated. It was a duplicate of the following series, which will continue to be updated: https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/FGCEC1 A Guide to the National Income and Product Accounts of the United States (NIPA) - (http://www.bea.gov/national/pdf/nipaguid.pdf)

  • Billions of Chained 2009 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    This series has been discontinued and will no longer be updated. It was a duplicate of the following series, which will continue to be updated: https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/FINSLC1 A Guide to the National Income and Product Accounts of the United States (NIPA) - (http://www.bea.gov/national/pdf/nipaguid.pdf)

  • Billions of Chained 2009 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    BEA Account Code: B720RX1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2009 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    BEA Account Code: B020RX1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2009 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    BEA Account Code: B752RX1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2009 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    This series has been discontinued and will no longer be updated. It was a duplicate of the following series, which will continue to be updated: https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/GCEC1 A Guide to the National Income and Product Accounts of the United States (NIPA) - (http://www.bea.gov/national/pdf/nipaguid.pdf)

  • Billions of Chained 2009 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    This series has been discontinued and will no longer be updated. It was a duplicate of the following series, which will continue to be updated: https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/GDPC1 A Guide to the National Income and Product Accounts of the United States (NIPA) - (http://www.bea.gov/national/pdf/nipaguid.pdf)

  • Billions of Chained 2009 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    This series has been discontinued and will no longer be updated. It was a duplicate of the following series, which will continue to be updated: https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/IMPGSC1 A Guide to the National Income and Product Accounts of the United States (NIPA) - (http://www.bea.gov/national/pdf/nipaguid.pdf)

  • Billions of Chained 2009 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    This series has been discontinued and will no longer be updated. It was a duplicate of the following series, which will continue to be updated: https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/FPIC1 A Guide to the National Income and Product Accounts of the United States (NIPA) - (http://www.bea.gov/national/pdf/nipaguid.pdf)

  • Billions of Chained 2009 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    This series has been discontinued and will no longer be updated. It was a duplicate of the following series, which will continue to be updated: https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/PNFIC1 A Guide to the National Income and Product Accounts of the United States (NIPA) - (http://www.bea.gov/national/pdf/nipaguid.pdf)

  • Billions of Chained 2009 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    BEA Account Code: B909RX1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2009 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    This series has been discontinued and will no longer be updated. It was a duplicate of the following series, which will continue to be updated: https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/GPDIC1 A Guide to the National Income and Product Accounts of the United States (NIPA) - (http://www.bea.gov/national/pdf/nipaguid.pdf)

  • Billions of Chained 2009 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    BEA Account Code: A649RX1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2009 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    This series has been discontinued and will no longer be updated. It was a duplicate of the following series, which will continue to be updated: https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/CBIC1 A Guide to the National Income and Product Accounts of the United States (NIPA) - (http://www.bea.gov/national/pdf/nipaguid.pdf)

  • Billions of Chained 2009 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    BEA Account Code: B021RX1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2009 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    This series has been discontinued and will no longer be updated. It was a duplicate of the following series, which will continue to be updated: https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/NETEXC A Guide to the National Income and Product Accounts of the United States (NIPA) - (http://www.bea.gov/national/pdf/nipaguid.pdf)

  • Billions of Chained 2009 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    BEA Account Code: B015RX1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2009 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    BEA Account Code: B533RX1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2009 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    BEA Account Code: B768RX1 For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2012 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B377RX For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2012 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B378RX For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2012 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B386RX For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2012 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B387RX For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2012 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B806RX For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2012 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted

    BEA Account Code: B807RX For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2012 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    BEA Account Code: C624RX For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2012 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    BEA Account Code: C625RX For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2012 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    BEA Account Code: C626RX For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2012 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    BEA Account Code: C627RX For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2012 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    BEA Account Code: C628RX For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

  • Billions of Chained 2012 Dollars, Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate

    BEA Account Code: C629RX For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.


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