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  • Percent, Daily, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    View data of the effective yield of an index of non-investment grade publically issued corporate debt in the U.S.

  • Percent, Daily, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    View data of the spreads between a computed index of all bonds below investment grade and a spot Treasury curve.

  • Percent, Daily, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This data represents the effective yield of the ICE BofA US Corporate C Index, a subset of the ICE BofA US High Yield Master II Index tracking the performance of US dollar denominated below investment grade rated corporate debt publicly issued in the US domestic market. This subset includes all securities with a given investment grade rating CCC or below. When the last calendar day of the month takes place on the weekend, weekend observations will occur as a result of month ending accrued interest adjustments. The index data referenced herein is the property of ICE Data Indices, LLC, its affiliates, ("ICE") and/or its Third Party Suppliers and has been licensed for use by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. ICE, its affiliates and Third Party Suppliers accept no liability in connection with its use. Copyright, 2017, ICE Benchmark Administration. Reprinted with permission.

  • Percent, Daily, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This data represents the effective yield of the ICE BofA Euro High Yield Index tracks the performance of Euro denominated below investment grade corporate debt publicly issued in the euro domestic or eurobond markets. Qualifying securities must have a below investment grade rating (based on an average of Moody's, S&P, and Fitch). Qualifying securities must have at least one year remaining term to maturity, a fixed coupon schedule, and a minimum amount outstanding of Euro 100 million. Original issue zero coupon bonds, "global" securities (debt issued simultaneously in the eurobond and euro domestic markets), 144a securities and pay-in-kind securities, including toggle notes, qualify for inclusion in the Index. Callable perpetual securities qualify provided they are at least one year from the first call date. Fixed-to-floating rate securities also qualify provided they are callable within the fixed rate period and are at least one year from the last call prior to the date the bond transitions from a fixed to a floating rate security. Defaulted, warrant-bearing and euro legacy currency securities are excluded from the Index. ICE BofA Explains the Construction Methodology of this series as: Index constituents are capitalization-weighted based on their current amount outstanding. With the exception of U.S. mortgage pass-throughs and U.S. structured products (ABS, CMBS and CMOs), accrued interest is calculated assuming next-day settlement. Accrued interest for U.S. mortgage pass-through and U.S. structured products is calculated assuming same-day settlement. Cash flows from bond payments that are received during the month are retained in the index until the end of the month and then are removed as part of the rebalancing. Cash does not earn any reinvestment income while it is held in the Index. The Index is rebalanced on the last calendar day of the month, based on information available up to and including the third business day before the last business day of the month. Issues that meet the qualifying criteria are included in the Index for the following month. Issues that no longer meet the criteria during the course of the month remain in the Index until the next month-end rebalancing at which point they are removed from the Index. The index data referenced herein is the property of ICE Data Indices, LLC, its affiliates, ("ICE") and/or its Third Party Suppliers and has been licensed for use by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. ICE, its affiliates and Third Party Suppliers accept no liability in connection with its use. Copyright, 2017, ICE Benchmark Administration. Reprinted with permission.

  • Percent, Daily, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This data represents the effective yield of the ICE BofA US Corporate BB Index, a subset of the ICE BofA US High Yield Master II Index tracking the performance of US dollar denominated below investment grade rated corporate debt publicly issued in the US domestic market. This subset includes all securities with a given investment grade rating BB. When the last calendar day of the month takes place on the weekend, weekend observations will occur as a result of month ending accrued interest adjustments. The index data referenced herein is the property of ICE Data Indices, LLC, its affiliates, ("ICE") and/or its Third Party Suppliers and has been licensed for use by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. ICE, its affiliates and Third Party Suppliers accept no liability in connection with its use. Copyright, 2017, ICE Benchmark Administration. Reprinted with permission.

  • Percent, Daily, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This data represents the effective yield of the ICE BofA US Corporate B Index, a subset of the ICE BofA US High Yield Master II Index tracking the performance of US dollar denominated below investment grade rated corporate debt publicly issued in the US domestic market. This subset includes all securities with a given investment grade rating B. When the last calendar day of the month takes place on the weekend, weekend observations will occur as a result of month ending accrued interest adjustments. The index data referenced herein is the property of ICE Data Indices, LLC, its affiliates, ("ICE") and/or its Third Party Suppliers and has been licensed for use by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. ICE, its affiliates and Third Party Suppliers accept no liability in connection with its use. Copyright, 2017, ICE Benchmark Administration. Reprinted with permission.

  • Percent, Daily, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This data represents the Option-Adjusted Spread (OAS) of the ICE BofA US Corporate BB Index, a subset of the ICE BofA US High Yield Master II Index tracking the performance of US dollar denominated below investment grade rated corporate debt publicly issued in the US domestic market. This subset includes all securities with a given investment grade rating BB. The ICE BofA OASs are the calculated spreads between a computed OAS index of all bonds in a given rating category and a spot Treasury curve. An OAS index is constructed using each constituent bond's OAS, weighted by market capitalization. When the last calendar day of the month takes place on the weekend, weekend observations will occur as a result of month ending accrued interest adjustments. The index data referenced herein is the property of ICE Data Indices, LLC, its affiliates, ("ICE") and/or its Third Party Suppliers and has been licensed for use by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. ICE, its affiliates and Third Party Suppliers accept no liability in connection with its use. Copyright, 2017, ICE Benchmark Administration. Reprinted with permission.

  • Percent, Daily, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This data represents the Option-Adjusted Spread (OAS) of the ICE BofA US Corporate C Index, a subset of the ICE BofA US High Yield Master II Index tracking the performance of US dollar denominated below investment grade rated corporate debt publicly issued in the US domestic market. This subset includes all securities with a given investment grade rating CCC or below. The ICE BofA OASs are the calculated spreads between a computed OAS index of all bonds in a given rating category and a spot Treasury curve. An OAS index is constructed using each constituent bond's OAS, weighted by market capitalization. When the last calendar day of the month takes place on the weekend, weekend observations will occur as a result of month ending accrued interest adjustments. The index data referenced herein is the property of ICE Data Indices, LLC, its affiliates, ("ICE") and/or its Third Party Suppliers and has been licensed for use by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. ICE, its affiliates and Third Party Suppliers accept no liability in connection with its use. Copyright, 2017, ICE Benchmark Administration. Reprinted with permission.

  • Index, Daily, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This data represents the ICE BofA US High Yield Index value, which tracks the performance of US dollar denominated below investment grade rated corporate debt publicly issued in the US domestic market. To qualify for inclusion in the index, securities must have a below investment grade rating (based on an average of Moody's, S&P, and Fitch) and an investment grade rated country of risk (based on an average of Moody's, S&P, and Fitch foreign currency long term sovereign debt ratings). Each security must have greater than 1 year of remaining maturity, a fixed coupon schedule, and a minimum amount outstanding of $100 million. Original issue zero coupon bonds, "global" securities (debt issued simultaneously in the eurobond and US domestic bond markets), 144a securities and pay-in-kind securities, including toggle notes, qualify for inclusion in the Index. Callable perpetual securities qualify provided they are at least one year from the first call date. Fixed-to-floating rate securities also qualify provided they are callable within the fixed rate period and are at least one year from the last call prior to the date the bond transitions from a fixed to a floating rate security. DRD-eligible and defaulted securities are excluded from the Index. ICE BofA Explains the Construction Methodology of this series as: Index constituents are capitalization-weighted based on their current amount outstanding. With the exception of U.S. mortgage pass-throughs and U.S. structured products (ABS, CMBS and CMOs), accrued interest is calculated assuming next-day settlement. Accrued interest for U.S. mortgage pass-through and U.S. structured products is calculated assuming same-day settlement. Cash flows from bond payments that are received during the month are retained in the index until the end of the month and then are removed as part of the rebalancing. Cash does not earn any reinvestment income while it is held in the Index. The Index is rebalanced on the last calendar day of the month, based on information available up to and including the third business day before the last business day of the month. Issues that meet the qualifying criteria are included in the Index for the following month. Issues that no longer meet the criteria during the course of the month remain in the Index until the next month-end rebalancing at which point they are removed from the Index. When the last calendar day of the month takes place on the weekend, weekend observations will occur as a result of month ending accrued interest adjustments. The index data referenced herein is the property of ICE Data Indices, LLC, its affiliates, ("ICE") and/or its Third Party Suppliers and has been licensed for use by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. ICE, its affiliates and Third Party Suppliers accept no liability in connection with its use. Copyright, 2017, ICE Benchmark Administration. Reprinted with permission.

  • Percent, Daily, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This data represents the Option-Adjusted Spread (OAS) of the ICE BofA Euro High Yield Index tracks the performance of Euro denominated below investment grade corporate debt publicly issued in the euro domestic or eurobond markets. Qualifying securities must have a below investment grade rating (based on an average of Moody's, S&P, and Fitch). Qualifying securities must have at least one year remaining term to maturity, a fixed coupon schedule, and a minimum amount outstanding of Euro 100 million. Original issue zero coupon bonds, "global" securities (debt issued simultaneously in the eurobond and euro domestic markets), 144a securities and pay-in-kind securities, including toggle notes, qualify for inclusion in the Index. Callable perpetual securities qualify provided they are at least one year from the first call date. Fixed-to-floating rate securities also qualify provided they are callable within the fixed rate period and are at least one year from the last call prior to the date the bond transitions from a fixed to a floating rate security. Defaulted, warrant-bearing and euro legacy currency securities are excluded from the Index. ICE BofA Explains the Construction Methodology of this series as: Index constituents are capitalization-weighted based on their current amount outstanding. With the exception of U.S. mortgage pass-throughs and U.S. structured products (ABS, CMBS and CMOs), accrued interest is calculated assuming next-day settlement. Accrued interest for U.S. mortgage pass-through and U.S. structured products is calculated assuming same-day settlement. Cash flows from bond payments that are received during the month are retained in the index until the end of the month and then are removed as part of the rebalancing. Cash does not earn any reinvestment income while it is held in the Index. The Index is rebalanced on the last calendar day of the month, based on information available up to and including the third business day before the last business day of the month. Issues that meet the qualifying criteria are included in the Index for the following month. Issues that no longer meet the criteria during the course of the month remain in the Index until the next month-end rebalancing at which point they are removed from the Index. The ICE BofA OASs are the calculated spreads between a computed OAS index of all bonds in a given rating category and a spot Treasury curve. An OAS index is constructed using each constituent bond's OAS, weighted by market capitalization. When the last calendar day of the month takes place on the weekend, weekend observations will occur as a result of month ending accrued interest adjustments. The index data referenced herein is the property of ICE Data Indices, LLC, its affiliates, ("ICE") and/or its Third Party Suppliers and has been licensed for use by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. ICE, its affiliates and Third Party Suppliers accept no liability in connection with its use. Copyright, 2017, ICE Benchmark Administration. Reprinted with permission.

  • Percent, Daily, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This data represents the Option-Adjusted Spread (OAS) of the ICE BofA US Corporate B Index, a subset of the ICE BofA US High Yield Master II Index tracking the performance of US dollar denominated below investment grade rated corporate debt publicly issued in the US domestic market. This subset includes all securities with a given investment grade rating B. The ICE BofA OASs are the calculated spreads between a computed OAS index of all bonds in a given rating category and a spot Treasury curve. An OAS index is constructed using each constituent bond's OAS, weighted by market capitalization. When the last calendar day of the month takes place on the weekend, weekend observations will occur as a result of month ending accrued interest adjustments. The index data referenced herein is the property of ICE Data Indices, LLC, its affiliates, ("ICE") and/or its Third Party Suppliers and has been licensed for use by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. ICE, its affiliates and Third Party Suppliers accept no liability in connection with its use. Copyright, 2017, ICE Benchmark Administration. Reprinted with permission.

  • Percent, Monthly, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    The basic type of selected bond is analogous to conventional Treasury coupon issues: a bond that pays a fixed semiannual nominal coupon denominated in U.S. dollars until maturity, when the principal is returned. The HQM yield curve uses data from a set of high quality corporate bonds rated AAA, AA, or A that accurately represent the high quality corporate bond market. For more information see https://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/economic-policy/corp-bond-yield/Pages/Corp-Yield-Bond-Curve-Papers.aspx

  • Percent, Daily, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This data represents the Option-Adjusted Spread (OAS) for the ICE BofA High Yield Emerging Markets Corporate Plus Index is a subset of the ICE BofA Emerging Markets Corporate Plus Index, which includes only securities rated BB1 or lower. The same inclusion rules apply for this series as those that apply for ICE BofA Emerging Markets Corporate Plus Index (https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/BAMLEMCBPITRIV?cid=32413). The ICE BofA OASs are the calculated spreads between a computed OAS index of all bonds in a given rating category and a spot Treasury curve. An OAS index is constructed using each constituent bond's OAS, weighted by market capitalization. When the last calendar day of the month takes place on the weekend, weekend observations will occur as a result of month ending accrued interest adjustments. The index data referenced herein is the property of ICE Data Indices, LLC, its affiliates, ("ICE") and/or its Third Party Suppliers and has been licensed for use by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. ICE, its affiliates and Third Party Suppliers accept no liability in connection with its use. Copyright, 2017, ICE Benchmark Administration. Reprinted with permission.

  • Percent, Daily, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This data represents the effective yield of the ICE BofA High Yield Emerging Markets Corporate Plus Index is a subset of the ICE BofA Emerging Markets Corporate Plus Index, which includes only securities rated BB1 or lower. The same inclusion rules apply for this series as those that apply for ICE BofA Emerging Markets Corporate Plus Index (https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/BAMLEMCBPITRIV?cid=32413). When the last calendar day of the month takes place on the weekend, weekend observations will occur as a result of month ending accrued interest adjustments. The index data referenced herein is the property of ICE Data Indices, LLC, its affiliates, ("ICE") and/or its Third Party Suppliers and has been licensed for use by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. ICE, its affiliates and Third Party Suppliers accept no liability in connection with its use. Copyright, 2017, ICE Benchmark Administration. Reprinted with permission.

  • Percent, Daily, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This data represents the semi-annual yield to worst of the ICE BofA US High Yield Index, which tracks the performance of US dollar denominated below investment grade rated corporate debt publicly issued in the US domestic market. To qualify for inclusion in the index, securities must have a below investment grade rating (based on an average of Moody's, S&P, and Fitch) and an investment grade rated country of risk (based on an average of Moody's, S&P, and Fitch foreign currency long term sovereign debt ratings). Each security must have greater than 1 year of remaining maturity, a fixed coupon schedule, and a minimum amount outstanding of $100 million. Original issue zero coupon bonds, "global" securities (debt issued simultaneously in the eurobond and US domestic bond markets), 144a securities and pay-in-kind securities, including toggle notes, qualify for inclusion in the Index. Callable perpetual securities qualify provided they are at least one year from the first call date. Fixed-to-floating rate securities also qualify provided they are callable within the fixed rate period and are at least one year from the last call prior to the date the bond transitions from a fixed to a floating rate security. DRD-eligible and defaulted securities are excluded from the Index. ICE BofA Explains the Construction Methodology of this series as: Index constituents are capitalization-weighted based on their current amount outstanding. With the exception of U.S. mortgage pass-throughs and U.S. structured products (ABS, CMBS and CMOs), accrued interest is calculated assuming next-day settlement. Accrued interest for U.S. mortgage pass-through and U.S. structured products is calculated assuming same-day settlement. Cash flows from bond payments that are received during the month are retained in the index until the end of the month and then are removed as part of the rebalancing. Cash does not earn any reinvestment income while it is held in the Index. The Index is rebalanced on the last calendar day of the month, based on information available up to and including the third business day before the last business day of the month. Issues that meet the qualifying criteria are included in the Index for the following month. Issues that no longer meet the criteria during the course of the month remain in the Index until the next month-end rebalancing at which point they are removed from the Index. Yield to worst is the lowest potential yield that a bond can generate without the issuer defaulting. The standard US convention for this series is to use semi-annual coupon payments, whereas the standard in the foreign markets is to use coupon payment frequencies of annual, semi-annual, quarterly, and monthly. When the last calendar day of the month takes place on the weekend, weekend observations will occur as a result of month ending accrued interest adjustments. The index data referenced herein is the property of ICE Data Indices, LLC, its affiliates, ("ICE") and/or its Third Party Suppliers and has been licensed for use by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. ICE, its affiliates and Third Party Suppliers accept no liability in connection with its use. Copyright, 2017, ICE Benchmark Administration. Reprinted with permission.

  • Index, Daily, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This data represents the ICE BofA Euro High Yield Index value, which tracks the performance of Euro denominated below investment grade corporate debt publicly issued in the euro domestic or eurobond markets. Qualifying securities must have a below investment grade rating (based on an average of Moody's, S&P, and Fitch). Qualifying securities must have at least one year remaining term to maturity, a fixed coupon schedule, and a minimum amount outstanding of Euro 100 million. Original issue zero coupon bonds, "global" securities (debt issued simultaneously in the eurobond and euro domestic markets), 144a securities and pay-in-kind securities, including toggle notes, qualify for inclusion in the Index. Callable perpetual securities qualify provided they are at least one year from the first call date. Fixed-to-floating rate securities also qualify provided they are callable within the fixed rate period and are at least one year from the last call prior to the date the bond transitions from a fixed to a floating rate security. Defaulted, warrant-bearing and euro legacy currency securities are excluded from the Index. ICE BofA Explains the Construction Methodology of this series as: Index constituents are capitalization-weighted based on their current amount outstanding. With the exception of U.S. mortgage pass-throughs and U.S. structured products (ABS, CMBS and CMOs), accrued interest is calculated assuming next-day settlement. Accrued interest for U.S. mortgage pass-through and U.S. structured products is calculated assuming same-day settlement. Cash flows from bond payments that are received during the month are retained in the index until the end of the month and then are removed as part of the rebalancing. Cash does not earn any reinvestment income while it is held in the Index. The Index is rebalanced on the last calendar day of the month, based on information available up to and including the third business day before the last business day of the month. Issues that meet the qualifying criteria are included in the Index for the following month. Issues that no longer meet the criteria during the course of the month remain in the Index until the next month-end rebalancing at which point they are removed from the Index. The index data referenced herein is the property of ICE Data Indices, LLC, its affiliates, ("ICE") and/or its Third Party Suppliers and has been licensed for use by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. ICE, its affiliates and Third Party Suppliers accept no liability in connection with its use. Copyright, 2017, ICE Benchmark Administration. Reprinted with permission.

  • Percent, Monthly, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    The basic type of selected bond is analogous to conventional Treasury coupon issues: a bond that pays a fixed semiannual nominal coupon denominated in U.S. dollars until maturity, when the principal is returned. The HQM yield curve uses data from a set of high quality corporate bonds rated AAA, AA, or A that accurately represent the high quality corporate bond market. For more information see https://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/economic-policy/corp-bond-yield/Pages/Corp-Yield-Bond-Curve-Papers.aspx

  • Index, Daily, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This data represents the ICE BofA US Corporate C Index value, a subset of the ICE BofA US High Yield Master II Index tracking the performance of US dollar denominated below investment grade rated corporate debt publicly issued in the US domestic market. This subset includes all securities with a given investment grade rating CCC or below. When the last calendar day of the month takes place on the weekend, weekend observations will occur as a result of month ending accrued interest adjustments. The index data referenced herein is the property of ICE Data Indices, LLC, its affiliates, ("ICE") and/or its Third Party Suppliers and has been licensed for use by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. ICE, its affiliates and Third Party Suppliers accept no liability in connection with its use. Copyright, 2017, ICE Benchmark Administration. Reprinted with permission.

  • Percent, Monthly, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    The basic type of selected bond is analogous to conventional Treasury coupon issues: a bond that pays a fixed semiannual nominal coupon denominated in U.S. dollars until maturity, when the principal is returned. The HQM yield curve uses data from a set of high quality corporate bonds rated AAA, AA, or A that accurately represent the high quality corporate bond market. For more information see https://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/economic-policy/corp-bond-yield/Pages/Corp-Yield-Bond-Curve-Papers.aspx

  • Index, Daily, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This data represents the ICE BofA US Corporate BB Index value, a subset of the ICE BofA US High Yield Master II Index tracking the performance of US dollar denominated below investment grade rated corporate debt publicly issued in the US domestic market. This subset includes all securities with a given investment grade rating BB. When the last calendar day of the month takes place on the weekend, weekend observations will occur as a result of month ending accrued interest adjustments. The index data referenced herein is the property of ICE Data Indices, LLC, its affiliates, ("ICE") and/or its Third Party Suppliers and has been licensed for use by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. ICE, its affiliates and Third Party Suppliers accept no liability in connection with its use. Copyright, 2017, ICE Benchmark Administration. Reprinted with permission.

  • Percent, Daily, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This data represents the semi-annual yield to worst of the ICE BofA US Corporate C Index, a subset of the ICE BofA US High Yield Master II Index tracking the performance of US dollar denominated below investment grade rated corporate debt publicly issued in the US domestic market. This subset includes all securities with a given investment grade rating CCC or below. When the last calendar day of the month takes place on the weekend, weekend observations will occur as a result of month ending accrued interest adjustments. Yield to worst is the lowest potential yield that a bond can generate without the issuer defaulting. The standard US convention for this series is to use semi-annual coupon payments, whereas the standard in the foreign markets is to use coupon payments with frequencies of annual, semi-annual, quarterly, and monthly. The index data referenced herein is the property of ICE Data Indices, LLC, its affiliates, ("ICE") and/or its Third Party Suppliers and has been licensed for use by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. ICE, its affiliates and Third Party Suppliers accept no liability in connection with its use. Copyright, 2017, ICE Benchmark Administration. Reprinted with permission.

  • Percent, Monthly, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    The basic type of selected bond is analogous to conventional Treasury coupon issues: a bond that pays a fixed semiannual nominal coupon denominated in U.S. dollars until maturity, when the principal is returned. The HQM yield curve uses data from a set of high quality corporate bonds rated AAA, AA, or A that accurately represent the high quality corporate bond market. For more information see https://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/economic-policy/corp-bond-yield/Pages/Corp-Yield-Bond-Curve-Papers.aspx

  • Percent, Daily, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This data represents the semi-annual yield to worst of the ICE BofA US Corporate BB Index, a subset of the ICE BofA US High Yield Master II Index tracking the performance of US dollar denominated below investment grade rated corporate debt publicly issued in the US domestic market. This subset includes all securities with a given investment grade rating BB. When the last calendar day of the month takes place on the weekend, weekend observations will occur as a result of month ending accrued interest adjustments. Yield to worst is the lowest potential yield that a bond can generate without the issuer defaulting. The standard US convention for this series is to use semi-annual coupon payments, whereas the standard in the foreign markets is to use coupon payments with frequencies of annual, semi-annual, quarterly, and monthly. The index data referenced herein is the property of ICE Data Indices, LLC, its affiliates, ("ICE") and/or its Third Party Suppliers and has been licensed for use by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. ICE, its affiliates and Third Party Suppliers accept no liability in connection with its use. Copyright, 2017, ICE Benchmark Administration. Reprinted with permission.

  • Index, Daily, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This data represents the ICE BofA US Corporate B Index value, a subset of the ICE BofA US High Yield Master II Index tracking the performance of US dollar denominated below investment grade rated corporate debt publicly issued in the US domestic market. This subset includes all securities with a given investment grade rating B. When the last calendar day of the month takes place on the weekend, weekend observations will occur as a result of month ending accrued interest adjustments. The index data referenced herein is the property of ICE Data Indices, LLC, its affiliates, ("ICE") and/or its Third Party Suppliers and has been licensed for use by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. ICE, its affiliates and Third Party Suppliers accept no liability in connection with its use. Copyright, 2017, ICE Benchmark Administration. Reprinted with permission.

  • Percent, Daily, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This data represents the semi-annual yield to worst of the ICE BofA US Corporate B Index, a subset of the ICE BofA US High Yield Master II Index tracking the performance of US dollar denominated below investment grade rated corporate debt publicly issued in the US domestic market. This subset includes all securities with a given investment grade rating B. When the last calendar day of the month takes place on the weekend, weekend observations will occur as a result of month ending accrued interest adjustments. Yield to worst is the lowest potential yield that a bond can generate without the issuer defaulting. The standard US convention for this series is to use semi-annual coupon payments, whereas the standard in the foreign markets is to use coupon payments with frequencies of annual, semi-annual, quarterly, and monthly. The index data referenced herein is the property of ICE Data Indices, LLC, its affiliates, ("ICE") and/or its Third Party Suppliers and has been licensed for use by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. ICE, its affiliates and Third Party Suppliers accept no liability in connection with its use. Copyright, 2017, ICE Benchmark Administration. Reprinted with permission.

  • Percent, Daily, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This data represents the Option-Adjusted Spread (OAS) for the ICE BofA High Yield US Emerging Markets Liquid Corporate Plus Index is a subset of the ICE BofA Emerging Markets Liquid Corporate Plus Index, which includes only securities rated BB1 or lower. The same inclusion rules apply for this series as those that apply for ICE BofA Emerging Markets Liquid Corporate Plus Index (https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/BAMLEMCLLCRPIUSTRIV?cid=32413). The ICE BofA OASs are the calculated spreads between a computed OAS index of all bonds in a given rating category and a spot Treasury curve. An OAS index is constructed using each constituent bond's OAS, weighted by market capitalization. When the last calendar day of the month takes place on the weekend, weekend observations will occur as a result of month ending accrued interest adjustments. The index data referenced herein is the property of ICE Data Indices, LLC, its affiliates, ("ICE") and/or its Third Party Suppliers and has been licensed for use by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. ICE, its affiliates and Third Party Suppliers accept no liability in connection with its use. Copyright, 2017, ICE Benchmark Administration. Reprinted with permission.

  • Percent, Daily, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This data represents the semi-annual yield to worst of the ICE BofA Euro High Yield Index tracks the performance of Euro denominated below investment grade corporate debt publicly issued in the euro domestic or eurobond markets. Qualifying securities must have a below investment grade rating (based on an average of Moody's, S&P, and Fitch). Qualifying securities must have at least one year remaining term to maturity, a fixed coupon schedule, and a minimum amount outstanding of Euro 100 million. Original issue zero coupon bonds, "global" securities (debt issued simultaneously in the eurobond and euro domestic markets), 144a securities and pay-in-kind securities, including toggle notes, qualify for inclusion in the Index. Callable perpetual securities qualify provided they are at least one year from the first call date. Fixed-to-floating rate securities also qualify provided they are callable within the fixed rate period and are at least one year from the last call prior to the date the bond transitions from a fixed to a floating rate security. Defaulted, warrant-bearing and euro legacy currency securities are excluded from the Index. ICE BofA Explains the Construction Methodology of this series as: Index constituents are capitalization-weighted based on their current amount outstanding. With the exception of U.S. mortgage pass-throughs and U.S. structured products (ABS, CMBS and CMOs), accrued interest is calculated assuming next-day settlement. Accrued interest for U.S. mortgage pass-through and U.S. structured products is calculated assuming same-day settlement. Cash flows from bond payments that are received during the month are retained in the index until the end of the month and then are removed as part of the rebalancing. Cash does not earn any reinvestment income while it is held in the Index. The Index is rebalanced on the last calendar day of the month, based on information available up to and including the third business day before the last business day of the month. Issues that meet the qualifying criteria are included in the Index for the following month. Issues that no longer meet the criteria during the course of the month remain in the Index until the next month-end rebalancing at which point they are removed from the Index. Yield to worst is the lowest potential yield that a bond can generate without the issuer defaulting. The standard US convention for this series is to use semi-annual coupon payments, whereas the standard in the foreign markets is to use coupon payment frequencies of annual, semi-annual, quarterly, and monthly. When the last calendar day of the month takes place on the weekend, weekend observations will occur as a result of month ending accrued interest adjustments. The index data referenced herein is the property of ICE Data Indices, LLC, its affiliates, ("ICE") and/or its Third Party Suppliers and has been licensed for use by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. ICE, its affiliates and Third Party Suppliers accept no liability in connection with its use. Copyright, 2017, ICE Benchmark Administration. Reprinted with permission.

  • Index, Monthly, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    The AD&Co US Mortgage High Yield Index crOAS, credit-and-option-adjusted spread, is an extension of the traditional OAS measure. On a set of 20 standardized, probabilistically weighted, market-and-model stress scenarios, AD&Co computes a discount rate that equates expected present value of tranche's cash flows to the observed market price; the cash flows are loss-adjusted using AD&Co's LoanDynamics Model (LDM). Investors and fund managers can use the index to assess the broad market returns, risks and opportunities available through investing in a market-weighted, passive portfolio of US mortgage credit risk transfer instruments. The Index also provides a means of comparing the returns of an actively managed portfolio against a passive, naive market portfolio as approximated by the Index. The Mid-Tier and its sub-indices allow for approximations of performance comparisons by vintage or age, across the capital stack, and by initial credit risk level and/or vintage as indicated by original attachment point. <b>Disclaimer:</b> The AD&Co U.S. Mortgage High-Yield Index serves as an informational index and is not for commercial-use purposes. The Index's accuracy, completeness, timeliness and suitability for any purpose are not guaranteed. The Index does not constitute (1) investment, legal, accounting, tax, or other professional advice or (2) any recommendation or solicitation to purchase, hold, sell, or otherwise deal in any investment. This Index has been prepared for general informational purposes, without consideration of the circumstances or objectives of any particular investor. Any reliance on the Index is at the reader's sole risk. All investment is subject to numerous risks, known and unknown. Past performance is no guarantee of future results. For investment advice, seek a qualified investment professional. Not for redistribution without permission. Note: An affiliate of Andrew Davidson & Co., Inc. engages in trading activities in investments that may be the same or similar to those featured in the Index. <b>Index Inclusion Rules</b> Only cash CAS and STACR bonds offered to the public, whether they are exchangeable or not, that have or have had IDC prices. Bond factor > = .25 Floating rate bonds only. Collateral Types 30 Year Residential. Fixed Rate: STACR-DN, DNA, HQ, HQA, HRP, CAS – C0 Tranche names – B, B1, B2, M3, M2, M1 Normally listed on GSE websites: <a href='https://crt.freddiemac.com/offerings/stacr.aspx#issuance-details'>Freddie Mac</a>, <a href='http://www.fanniemae.com/portal/funding-the-market/credit-risk/transactions.html'>Fannie Mae</a> No private placements No Child Classes (Exchangeable into) or Retained Classes (H bonds) No CIRT, ACIS, SPI Original attachment points and CAS STACR <table style='width:50%'><tr><th>Tier</th><th>Attachment Points</th><th>CAS STACR Class</th></tr><tr><td>0</td><td>> = 0.00 < .25</td><td>STACR Class B, B2; CAS Class B</td></tr><tr><td>1</td><td>> = 0.25 < .95</td><td>STACR Class B1, Old M3; CAS Class B1</td></tr><tr><td>2</td><td>> = 0.95 < 1.75</td><td>STACR Class M3, M2; CAS Class M2</td></tr><tr><td>3</td><td>> = 1.75 < 3.75</td><td>STACR Class M2, M1; CAS Class M1</td></tr><tr><td>Mid</td><td>> = 0.25 < 3.75</td><td>STACR Class Mixed; CAS Class Mixed</td></tr></table> Input data provided by Intex and ICE Data Services. © Andrew Davidson & Co., Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Index, Daily, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    The ICE BofA High Yield Emerging Markets Corporate Plus Index is a subset of the ICE BofA Emerging Markets Corporate Plus Index, which includes only securities rated BB1 or lower. The same inclusion rules apply for this series as those that apply for ICE BofA Emerging Markets Corporate Plus Index (https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/BAMLEMCBPITRIV?cid=32413). When the last calendar day of the month takes place on the weekend, weekend observations will occur as a result of month ending accrued interest adjustments. The index data referenced herein is the property of ICE Data Indices, LLC, its affiliates, ("ICE") and/or its Third Party Suppliers and has been licensed for use by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. ICE, its affiliates and Third Party Suppliers accept no liability in connection with its use. Copyright, 2017, ICE Benchmark Administration. Reprinted with permission.

  • Index Jun 2015=100, Monthly, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    The AD&Co US Mortgage High Yield Index (USMHY) tracks the total return of the bonds issued within the CRT programs of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. USMHY is an informational, investment-oriented monthly index of the return components: price, coupon, paydown, and credit loss. Accompanied by standard risk metrics from our models, the index is useful for comparisons with individual CRT bonds or relative value to other credit markets. Investors and fund managers can use the index to assess the broad market returns, risks and opportunities available through investing in a market-weighted, passive portfolio of US mortgage credit risk transfer instruments. The Index also provides a means of comparing the returns of an actively managed portfolio against a passive, naive market portfolio as approximated by the Index. The Mid-Tier and its sub-indices allow for approximations of performance comparisons by vintage or age, across the capital stack, and by initial credit risk level and/or vintage as indicated by original attachment point. <b>Disclaimer:</b> The AD&Co U.S. Mortgage High-Yield Index serves as an informational index and is not for commercial-use purposes. The Index's accuracy, completeness, timeliness and suitability for any purpose are not guaranteed. The Index does not constitute (1) investment, legal, accounting, tax, or other professional advice or (2) any recommendation or solicitation to purchase, hold, sell, or otherwise deal in any investment. This Index has been prepared for general informational purposes, without consideration of the circumstances or objectives of any particular investor. Any reliance on the Index is at the reader's sole risk. All investment is subject to numerous risks, known and unknown. Past performance is no guarantee of future results. For investment advice, seek a qualified investment professional. Not for redistribution without permission. Note: An affiliate of Andrew Davidson & Co., Inc. engages in trading activities in investments that may be the same or similar to those featured in the Index. <b>Index Inclusion Rules</b> Only cash CAS and STACR bonds offered to the public, whether they are exchangeable or not, that have or have had IDC prices. Bond factor > = .25 Floating rate bonds only. Collateral Types 30 Year Residential. Fixed Rate: STACR-DN, DNA, HQ, HQA, HRP, CAS – C0 Tranche names – B, B1, B2, M3, M2, M1 Normally listed on GSE websites: <a href='https://crt.freddiemac.com/offerings/stacr.aspx#issuance-details'>Freddie Mac</a>, <a href='http://www.fanniemae.com/portal/funding-the-market/credit-risk/transactions.html'>Fannie Mae</a> No private placements No Child Classes (Exchangeable into) or Retained Classes (H bonds) No CIRT, ACIS, SPI Original attachment points and CAS STACR <table style='width:50%'><tr><th>Tier</th><th>Attachment Points</th><th>CAS STACR Class</th></tr><tr><td>0</td><td>> = 0.00 < .25</td><td>STACR Class B, B2; CAS Class B</td></tr><tr><td>1</td><td>> = 0.25 < .95</td><td>STACR Class B1, Old M3; CAS Class B1</td></tr><tr><td>2</td><td>> = 0.95 < 1.75</td><td>STACR Class M3, M2; CAS Class M2</td></tr><tr><td>3</td><td>> = 1.75 < 3.75</td><td>STACR Class M2, M1; CAS Class M1</td></tr><tr><td>Mid</td><td>> = 0.25 < 3.75</td><td>STACR Class Mixed; CAS Class Mixed</td></tr></table> Input data provided by Intex and ICE Data Services. © Andrew Davidson & Co., Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Index, Monthly, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    The AD&Co US Mortgage High Yield Index crOAS, credit-and-option-adjusted spread, is an extension of the traditional OAS measure. On a set of 20 standardized, probabilistically weighted, market-and-model stress scenarios, AD&Co computes a discount rate that equates expected present value of tranche's cash flows to the observed market price; the cash flows are loss-adjusted using AD&Co's LoanDynamics Model (LDM). Investors and fund managers can use the index to assess the broad market returns, risks and opportunities available through investing in a market-weighted, passive portfolio of US mortgage credit risk transfer instruments. The Index also provides a means of comparing the returns of an actively managed portfolio against a passive, naive market portfolio as approximated by the Index. The Mid-Tier and its sub-indices allow for approximations of performance comparisons by vintage or age, across the capital stack, and by initial credit risk level and/or vintage as indicated by original attachment point. <b>Disclaimer:</b> The AD&Co U.S. Mortgage High-Yield Index serves as an informational index and is not for commercial-use purposes. The Index's accuracy, completeness, timeliness and suitability for any purpose are not guaranteed. The Index does not constitute (1) investment, legal, accounting, tax, or other professional advice or (2) any recommendation or solicitation to purchase, hold, sell, or otherwise deal in any investment. This Index has been prepared for general informational purposes, without consideration of the circumstances or objectives of any particular investor. Any reliance on the Index is at the reader's sole risk. All investment is subject to numerous risks, known and unknown. Past performance is no guarantee of future results. For investment advice, seek a qualified investment professional. Not for redistribution without permission. Note: An affiliate of Andrew Davidson & Co., Inc. engages in trading activities in investments that may be the same or similar to those featured in the Index. <b>Index Inclusion Rules</b> Only cash CAS and STACR bonds offered to the public, whether they are exchangeable or not, that have or have had IDC prices. Bond factor > = .25 Floating rate bonds only. Collateral Types 30 Year Residential. Fixed Rate: STACR-DN, DNA, HQ, HQA, HRP, CAS – C0 Tranche names – B, B1, B2, M3, M2, M1 Normally listed on GSE websites: <a href='https://crt.freddiemac.com/offerings/stacr.aspx#issuance-details'>Freddie Mac</a>, <a href='http://www.fanniemae.com/portal/funding-the-market/credit-risk/transactions.html'>Fannie Mae</a> No private placements No Child Classes (Exchangeable into) or Retained Classes (H bonds) No CIRT, ACIS, SPI Original attachment points and CAS STACR <table style='width:50%'><tr><th>Tier</th><th>Attachment Points</th><th>CAS STACR Class</th></tr><tr><td>0</td><td>> = 0.00 < .25</td><td>STACR Class B, B2; CAS Class B</td></tr><tr><td>1</td><td>> = 0.25 < .95</td><td>STACR Class B1, Old M3; CAS Class B1</td></tr><tr><td>2</td><td>> = 0.95 < 1.75</td><td>STACR Class M3, M2; CAS Class M2</td></tr><tr><td>3</td><td>> = 1.75 < 3.75</td><td>STACR Class M2, M1; CAS Class M1</td></tr><tr><td>Mid</td><td>> = 0.25 < 3.75</td><td>STACR Class Mixed; CAS Class Mixed</td></tr></table> Input data provided by Intex and ICE Data Services. © Andrew Davidson & Co., Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Percent, Daily, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This data represents the effective yield of the ICE BofA High Grade Emerging Markets Corporate Plus Index is a subset of the ICE BofA Emerging Markets Corporate Plus Index, which includes only securities rated AAA through BBB3. The same inclusion rules apply for this series as those that apply for ICE BofA Emerging Markets Corporate Plus Index (https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/BAMLEMCBPITRIV?cid=32413). When the last calendar day of the month takes place on the weekend, weekend observations will occur as a result of month ending accrued interest adjustments. The index data referenced herein is the property of ICE Data Indices, LLC, its affiliates, ("ICE") and/or its Third Party Suppliers and has been licensed for use by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. ICE, its affiliates and Third Party Suppliers accept no liability in connection with its use. Copyright, 2017, ICE Benchmark Administration. Reprinted with permission.

  • Index Jun 2015=100, Monthly, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    The AD&Co US Mortgage High Yield Index (USMHY) tracks the total return of the bonds issued within the CRT programs of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. USMHY is an informational, investment-oriented monthly index of the return components: price, coupon, paydown, and credit loss. Accompanied by standard risk metrics from our models, the index is useful for comparisons with individual CRT bonds or relative value to other credit markets. Investors and fund managers can use the index to assess the broad market returns, risks and opportunities available through investing in a market-weighted, passive portfolio of US mortgage credit risk transfer instruments. The Index also provides a means of comparing the returns of an actively managed portfolio against a passive, naive market portfolio as approximated by the Index. The Mid-Tier and its sub-indices allow for approximations of performance comparisons by vintage or age, across the capital stack, and by initial credit risk level and/or vintage as indicated by original attachment point. <b>Disclaimer:</b> The AD&Co U.S. Mortgage High-Yield Index serves as an informational index and is not for commercial-use purposes. The Index's accuracy, completeness, timeliness and suitability for any purpose are not guaranteed. The Index does not constitute (1) investment, legal, accounting, tax, or other professional advice or (2) any recommendation or solicitation to purchase, hold, sell, or otherwise deal in any investment. This Index has been prepared for general informational purposes, without consideration of the circumstances or objectives of any particular investor. Any reliance on the Index is at the reader's sole risk. All investment is subject to numerous risks, known and unknown. Past performance is no guarantee of future results. For investment advice, seek a qualified investment professional. Not for redistribution without permission. Note: An affiliate of Andrew Davidson & Co., Inc. engages in trading activities in investments that may be the same or similar to those featured in the Index. <b>Index Inclusion Rules</b> Only cash CAS and STACR bonds offered to the public, whether they are exchangeable or not, that have or have had IDC prices. Bond factor > = .25 Floating rate bonds only. Collateral Types 30 Year Residential. Fixed Rate: STACR-DN, DNA, HQ, HQA, HRP, CAS – C0 Tranche names – B, B1, B2, M3, M2, M1 Normally listed on GSE websites: <a href='https://crt.freddiemac.com/offerings/stacr.aspx#issuance-details'>Freddie Mac</a>, <a href='http://www.fanniemae.com/portal/funding-the-market/credit-risk/transactions.html'>Fannie Mae</a> No private placements No Child Classes (Exchangeable into) or Retained Classes (H bonds) No CIRT, ACIS, SPI Original attachment points and CAS STACR <table style='width:50%'><tr><th>Tier</th><th>Attachment Points</th><th>CAS STACR Class</th></tr><tr><td>0</td><td>> = 0.00 < .25</td><td>STACR Class B, B2; CAS Class B</td></tr><tr><td>1</td><td>> = 0.25 < .95</td><td>STACR Class B1, Old M3; CAS Class B1</td></tr><tr><td>2</td><td>> = 0.95 < 1.75</td><td>STACR Class M3, M2; CAS Class M2</td></tr><tr><td>3</td><td>> = 1.75 < 3.75</td><td>STACR Class M2, M1; CAS Class M1</td></tr><tr><td>Mid</td><td>> = 0.25 < 3.75</td><td>STACR Class Mixed; CAS Class Mixed</td></tr></table> Input data provided by Intex and ICE Data Services. © Andrew Davidson & Co., Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Index Jun 2015=100, Monthly, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    The AD&Co US Mortgage High Yield Index (USMHY) tracks the total return of the bonds issued within the CRT programs of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. USMHY is an informational, investment-oriented monthly index of the return components: price, coupon, paydown, and credit loss. Accompanied by standard risk metrics from our models, the index is useful for comparisons with individual CRT bonds or relative value to other credit markets. Investors and fund managers can use the index to assess the broad market returns, risks and opportunities available through investing in a market-weighted, passive portfolio of US mortgage credit risk transfer instruments. The Index also provides a means of comparing the returns of an actively managed portfolio against a passive, naive market portfolio as approximated by the Index. The Mid-Tier and its sub-indices allow for approximations of performance comparisons by vintage or age, across the capital stack, and by initial credit risk level and/or vintage as indicated by original attachment point. <b>Disclaimer:</b> The AD&Co U.S. Mortgage High-Yield Index serves as an informational index and is not for commercial-use purposes. The Index's accuracy, completeness, timeliness and suitability for any purpose are not guaranteed. The Index does not constitute (1) investment, legal, accounting, tax, or other professional advice or (2) any recommendation or solicitation to purchase, hold, sell, or otherwise deal in any investment. This Index has been prepared for general informational purposes, without consideration of the circumstances or objectives of any particular investor. Any reliance on the Index is at the reader's sole risk. All investment is subject to numerous risks, known and unknown. Past performance is no guarantee of future results. For investment advice, seek a qualified investment professional. Not for redistribution without permission. Note: An affiliate of Andrew Davidson & Co., Inc. engages in trading activities in investments that may be the same or similar to those featured in the Index. <b>Index Inclusion Rules</b> Only cash CAS and STACR bonds offered to the public, whether they are exchangeable or not, that have or have had IDC prices. Bond factor > = .25 Floating rate bonds only. Collateral Types 30 Year Residential. Fixed Rate: STACR-DN, DNA, HQ, HQA, HRP, CAS – C0 Tranche names – B, B1, B2, M3, M2, M1 Normally listed on GSE websites: <a href='https://crt.freddiemac.com/offerings/stacr.aspx#issuance-details'>Freddie Mac</a>, <a href='http://www.fanniemae.com/portal/funding-the-market/credit-risk/transactions.html'>Fannie Mae</a> No private placements No Child Classes (Exchangeable into) or Retained Classes (H bonds) No CIRT, ACIS, SPI Original attachment points and CAS STACR <table style='width:50%'><tr><th>Tier</th><th>Attachment Points</th><th>CAS STACR Class</th></tr><tr><td>0</td><td>> = 0.00 < .25</td><td>STACR Class B, B2; CAS Class B</td></tr><tr><td>1</td><td>> = 0.25 < .95</td><td>STACR Class B1, Old M3; CAS Class B1</td></tr><tr><td>2</td><td>> = 0.95 < 1.75</td><td>STACR Class M3, M2; CAS Class M2</td></tr><tr><td>3</td><td>> = 1.75 < 3.75</td><td>STACR Class M2, M1; CAS Class M1</td></tr><tr><td>Mid</td><td>> = 0.25 < 3.75</td><td>STACR Class Mixed; CAS Class Mixed</td></tr></table> Input data provided by Intex and ICE Data Services. © Andrew Davidson & Co., Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Percent, Monthly, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    From January 1900-December 1928, These Indexes Are Based Upon The Mean Of The Monthly High-Low Price Of Forty-Five High Grade Corporate Bonds. From January 1929-March 1937 The Indexes Have Been Based Upon A Varying Group Of Aaa Bonds, One Price Monthly (First Of Month) Being Used. Beginning April 1937 To Date The Average Is Of The Four Or Five Weekly Aaa Indexes. The Lack Of Data For August-November 1914 Is Due To The Stock Exchange Being Closed. Source: Standard And Poor'S, Data For 1900-1942: Security Price Index Record. Data For 1943-1972: Current Statistics Combined With Basic Statistics; Also Trade And Securities. This NBER data series m13026 appears on the NBER website in Chapter 13 at http://www.nber.org/databases/macrohistory/contents/chapter13.html. NBER Indicator: m13026

  • Index, Monthly, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    The AD&Co US Mortgage High Yield Index crOAS, credit-and-option-adjusted spread, is an extension of the traditional OAS measure. On a set of 20 standardized, probabilistically weighted, market-and-model stress scenarios, AD&Co computes a discount rate that equates expected present value of tranche's cash flows to the observed market price; the cash flows are loss-adjusted using AD&Co's LoanDynamics Model (LDM). Investors and fund managers can use the index to assess the broad market returns, risks and opportunities available through investing in a market-weighted, passive portfolio of US mortgage credit risk transfer instruments. The Index also provides a means of comparing the returns of an actively managed portfolio against a passive, naive market portfolio as approximated by the Index. The Mid-Tier and its sub-indices allow for approximations of performance comparisons by vintage or age, across the capital stack, and by initial credit risk level and/or vintage as indicated by original attachment point. <b>Disclaimer:</b> The AD&Co U.S. Mortgage High-Yield Index serves as an informational index and is not for commercial-use purposes. The Index's accuracy, completeness, timeliness and suitability for any purpose are not guaranteed. The Index does not constitute (1) investment, legal, accounting, tax, or other professional advice or (2) any recommendation or solicitation to purchase, hold, sell, or otherwise deal in any investment. This Index has been prepared for general informational purposes, without consideration of the circumstances or objectives of any particular investor. Any reliance on the Index is at the reader's sole risk. All investment is subject to numerous risks, known and unknown. Past performance is no guarantee of future results. For investment advice, seek a qualified investment professional. Not for redistribution without permission. Note: An affiliate of Andrew Davidson & Co., Inc. engages in trading activities in investments that may be the same or similar to those featured in the Index. <b>Index Inclusion Rules</b> Only cash CAS and STACR bonds offered to the public, whether they are exchangeable or not, that have or have had IDC prices. Bond factor > = .25 Floating rate bonds only. Collateral Types 30 Year Residential. Fixed Rate: STACR-DN, DNA, HQ, HQA, HRP, CAS – C0 Tranche names – B, B1, B2, M3, M2, M1 Normally listed on GSE websites: <a href='https://crt.freddiemac.com/offerings/stacr.aspx#issuance-details'>Freddie Mac</a>, <a href='http://www.fanniemae.com/portal/funding-the-market/credit-risk/transactions.html'>Fannie Mae</a> No private placements No Child Classes (Exchangeable into) or Retained Classes (H bonds) No CIRT, ACIS, SPI Original attachment points and CAS STACR <table style='width:50%'><tr><th>Tier</th><th>Attachment Points</th><th>CAS STACR Class</th></tr><tr><td>0</td><td>> = 0.00 < .25</td><td>STACR Class B, B2; CAS Class B</td></tr><tr><td>1</td><td>> = 0.25 < .95</td><td>STACR Class B1, Old M3; CAS Class B1</td></tr><tr><td>2</td><td>> = 0.95 < 1.75</td><td>STACR Class M3, M2; CAS Class M2</td></tr><tr><td>3</td><td>> = 1.75 < 3.75</td><td>STACR Class M2, M1; CAS Class M1</td></tr><tr><td>Mid</td><td>> = 0.25 < 3.75</td><td>STACR Class Mixed; CAS Class Mixed</td></tr></table> Input data provided by Intex and ICE Data Services. © Andrew Davidson & Co., Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Percent, Daily, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This data represents the semi-annual yield to worst of the ICE BofA High Yield Emerging Markets Corporate Plus Index is a subset of the ICE BofA Emerging Markets Corporate Plus Index, which includes only securities rated BB1 or lower. The same inclusion rules apply for this series as those that apply for ICE BofA Emerging Markets Corporate Plus Index (https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/BAMLEMCBPITRIV?cid=32413). When the last calendar day of the month takes place on the weekend, weekend observations will occur as a result of month ending accrued interest adjustments. Yield to worst is the lowest potential yield that a bond can generate without the issuer defaulting. The standard US convention for this series is to use semi-annual coupon payments, whereas the standard in the foreign markets is to use coupon payments with frequencies of annual, semi-annual, quarterly, and monthly. The index data referenced herein is the property of ICE Data Indices, LLC, its affiliates, ("ICE") and/or its Third Party Suppliers and has been licensed for use by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. ICE, its affiliates and Third Party Suppliers accept no liability in connection with its use. Copyright, 2017, ICE Benchmark Administration. Reprinted with permission.

  • Index Jun 2015=100, Monthly, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    The AD&Co US Mortgage High Yield Index (USMHY) tracks the total return of the bonds issued within the CRT programs of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. USMHY is an informational, investment-oriented monthly index of the return components: price, coupon, paydown, and credit loss. Accompanied by standard risk metrics from our models, the index is useful for comparisons with individual CRT bonds or relative value to other credit markets. Investors and fund managers can use the index to assess the broad market returns, risks and opportunities available through investing in a market-weighted, passive portfolio of US mortgage credit risk transfer instruments. The Index also provides a means of comparing the returns of an actively managed portfolio against a passive, naive market portfolio as approximated by the Index. The Mid-Tier and its sub-indices allow for approximations of performance comparisons by vintage or age, across the capital stack, and by initial credit risk level and/or vintage as indicated by original attachment point. <b>Disclaimer:</b> The AD&Co U.S. Mortgage High-Yield Index serves as an informational index and is not for commercial-use purposes. The Index's accuracy, completeness, timeliness and suitability for any purpose are not guaranteed. The Index does not constitute (1) investment, legal, accounting, tax, or other professional advice or (2) any recommendation or solicitation to purchase, hold, sell, or otherwise deal in any investment. This Index has been prepared for general informational purposes, without consideration of the circumstances or objectives of any particular investor. Any reliance on the Index is at the reader's sole risk. All investment is subject to numerous risks, known and unknown. Past performance is no guarantee of future results. For investment advice, seek a qualified investment professional. Not for redistribution without permission. Note: An affiliate of Andrew Davidson & Co., Inc. engages in trading activities in investments that may be the same or similar to those featured in the Index. <b>Index Inclusion Rules</b> Only cash CAS and STACR bonds offered to the public, whether they are exchangeable or not, that have or have had IDC prices. Bond factor > = .25 Floating rate bonds only. Collateral Types 30 Year Residential. Fixed Rate: STACR-DN, DNA, HQ, HQA, HRP, CAS – C0 Tranche names – B, B1, B2, M3, M2, M1 Normally listed on GSE websites: <a href='https://crt.freddiemac.com/offerings/stacr.aspx#issuance-details'>Freddie Mac</a>, <a href='http://www.fanniemae.com/portal/funding-the-market/credit-risk/transactions.html'>Fannie Mae</a> No private placements No Child Classes (Exchangeable into) or Retained Classes (H bonds) No CIRT, ACIS, SPI Original attachment points and CAS STACR <table style='width:50%'><tr><th>Tier</th><th>Attachment Points</th><th>CAS STACR Class</th></tr><tr><td>0</td><td>> = 0.00 < .25</td><td>STACR Class B, B2; CAS Class B</td></tr><tr><td>1</td><td>> = 0.25 < .95</td><td>STACR Class B1, Old M3; CAS Class B1</td></tr><tr><td>2</td><td>> = 0.95 < 1.75</td><td>STACR Class M3, M2; CAS Class M2</td></tr><tr><td>3</td><td>> = 1.75 < 3.75</td><td>STACR Class M2, M1; CAS Class M1</td></tr><tr><td>Mid</td><td>> = 0.25 < 3.75</td><td>STACR Class Mixed; CAS Class Mixed</td></tr></table> Input data provided by Intex and ICE Data Services. © Andrew Davidson & Co., Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Percent, Monthly, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Source: Standard And Poor'S Corporation, Data For 1900-1928: Standard Statistics Co., Base Book; Standard Statistical Bulletin, January 1932, P. 125. Data For 1929-1967: Computed By NBER By Taking A Simple Average Of Four Series, All Based On Standard And Poor'S Data -- Series 13023 (Municipal Bonds); Series 13024 (Railroad Bonds); Series 13025 (Public Utilities); Series 13026 (Industrial Bonds). This NBER data series m13021 appears on the NBER website in Chapter 13 at http://www.nber.org/databases/macrohistory/contents/chapter13.html. NBER Indicator: m13021

  • Percent, Monthly, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Data For 1900-1928 Are Based Upon The Mean Of The Monthly High And Low Price Of Five High Grade Bonds. Data For 1929-1937 Are Based Upon A Varying Group Of A1+ Bonds, One Price Monthly Being Used. Data Beginning April 1937 Are Based On The Average Of The Four Or Five Weekly A1+ Indexes. The Yield To Maturity Has Been Used. Missing Data For August-October 1914 Is Due To The Stock Exchange Closing. Source: Standard And Poor'S, Data For 1900-1946: "Long Term Security Price Index Record (Through December 31, 1940)", P. 128;"Security Price Record: 1941 And 1943", P. 13;"Current Statistics Combined With Basic Statistics", 1944-1946. Data For 1947: "Statistics: Security Price Index Record", 1948 Edition, P. 134. Data For 1948-1950: "Current Statistics Combined With Basic Statistics", January Issues Of 1949-1950. Data For 1951-1963: "Current Statistics", February 1952 And Successive Issues. This NBER data series m13025 appears on the NBER website in Chapter 13 at http://www.nber.org/databases/macrohistory/contents/chapter13.html. NBER Indicator: m13025

  • Index Jun 2015=100, Monthly, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    The AD&Co US Mortgage High Yield Index (USMHY) tracks the total return of the bonds issued within the CRT programs of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. USMHY is an informational, investment-oriented monthly index of the return components: price, coupon, paydown, and credit loss. Accompanied by standard risk metrics from our models, the index is useful for comparisons with individual CRT bonds or relative value to other credit markets. Investors and fund managers can use the index to assess the broad market returns, risks and opportunities available through investing in a market-weighted, passive portfolio of US mortgage credit risk transfer instruments. The Index also provides a means of comparing the returns of an actively managed portfolio against a passive, naive market portfolio as approximated by the Index. The Mid-Tier and its sub-indices allow for approximations of performance comparisons by vintage or age, across the capital stack, and by initial credit risk level and/or vintage as indicated by original attachment point. <b>Disclaimer:</b> The AD&Co U.S. Mortgage High-Yield Index serves as an informational index and is not for commercial-use purposes. The Index's accuracy, completeness, timeliness and suitability for any purpose are not guaranteed. The Index does not constitute (1) investment, legal, accounting, tax, or other professional advice or (2) any recommendation or solicitation to purchase, hold, sell, or otherwise deal in any investment. This Index has been prepared for general informational purposes, without consideration of the circumstances or objectives of any particular investor. Any reliance on the Index is at the reader's sole risk. All investment is subject to numerous risks, known and unknown. Past performance is no guarantee of future results. For investment advice, seek a qualified investment professional. Not for redistribution without permission. Note: An affiliate of Andrew Davidson & Co., Inc. engages in trading activities in investments that may be the same or similar to those featured in the Index. <b>Index Inclusion Rules</b> Only cash CAS and STACR bonds offered to the public, whether they are exchangeable or not, that have or have had IDC prices. Bond factor > = .25 Floating rate bonds only. Collateral Types 30 Year Residential. Fixed Rate: STACR-DN, DNA, HQ, HQA, HRP, CAS – C0 Tranche names – B, B1, B2, M3, M2, M1 Normally listed on GSE websites: <a href='https://crt.freddiemac.com/offerings/stacr.aspx#issuance-details'>Freddie Mac</a>, <a href='http://www.fanniemae.com/portal/funding-the-market/credit-risk/transactions.html'>Fannie Mae</a> No private placements No Child Classes (Exchangeable into) or Retained Classes (H bonds) No CIRT, ACIS, SPI Original attachment points and CAS STACR <table style='width:50%'><tr><th>Tier</th><th>Attachment Points</th><th>CAS STACR Class</th></tr><tr><td>0</td><td>> = 0.00 < .25</td><td>STACR Class B, B2; CAS Class B</td></tr><tr><td>1</td><td>> = 0.25 < .95</td><td>STACR Class B1, Old M3; CAS Class B1</td></tr><tr><td>2</td><td>> = 0.95 < 1.75</td><td>STACR Class M3, M2; CAS Class M2</td></tr><tr><td>3</td><td>> = 1.75 < 3.75</td><td>STACR Class M2, M1; CAS Class M1</td></tr><tr><td>Mid</td><td>> = 0.25 < 3.75</td><td>STACR Class Mixed; CAS Class Mixed</td></tr></table> Input data provided by Intex and ICE Data Services. © Andrew Davidson & Co., Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Percent, Daily, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This data represents the effective yield of the ICE BofA High Yield US Emerging Markets Liquid Corporate Plus Index is a subset of the ICE BofA Emerging Markets Liquid Corporate Plus Index, which includes only securities rated BB1 or lower. The same inclusion rules apply for this series as those that apply for ICE BofA Emerging Markets Liquid Corporate Plus Index (https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/BAMLEMCLLCRPIUSTRIV?cid=32413). When the last calendar day of the month takes place on the weekend, weekend observations will occur as a result of month ending accrued interest adjustments. The index data referenced herein is the property of ICE Data Indices, LLC, its affiliates, ("ICE") and/or its Third Party Suppliers and has been licensed for use by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. ICE, its affiliates and Third Party Suppliers accept no liability in connection with its use. Copyright, 2017, ICE Benchmark Administration. Reprinted with permission.

  • Index, Monthly, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    The AD&Co US Mortgage High Yield Index crOAS, credit-and-option-adjusted spread, is an extension of the traditional OAS measure. On a set of 20 standardized, probabilistically weighted, market-and-model stress scenarios, AD&Co computes a discount rate that equates expected present value of tranche's cash flows to the observed market price; the cash flows are loss-adjusted using AD&Co's LoanDynamics Model (LDM). Investors and fund managers can use the index to assess the broad market returns, risks and opportunities available through investing in a market-weighted, passive portfolio of US mortgage credit risk transfer instruments. The Index also provides a means of comparing the returns of an actively managed portfolio against a passive, naive market portfolio as approximated by the Index. The Mid-Tier and its sub-indices allow for approximations of performance comparisons by vintage or age, across the capital stack, and by initial credit risk level and/or vintage as indicated by original attachment point. <b>Disclaimer:</b> The AD&Co U.S. Mortgage High-Yield Index serves as an informational index and is not for commercial-use purposes. The Index's accuracy, completeness, timeliness and suitability for any purpose are not guaranteed. The Index does not constitute (1) investment, legal, accounting, tax, or other professional advice or (2) any recommendation or solicitation to purchase, hold, sell, or otherwise deal in any investment. This Index has been prepared for general informational purposes, without consideration of the circumstances or objectives of any particular investor. Any reliance on the Index is at the reader's sole risk. All investment is subject to numerous risks, known and unknown. Past performance is no guarantee of future results. For investment advice, seek a qualified investment professional. Not for redistribution without permission. Note: An affiliate of Andrew Davidson & Co., Inc. engages in trading activities in investments that may be the same or similar to those featured in the Index. <b>Index Inclusion Rules</b> Only cash CAS and STACR bonds offered to the public, whether they are exchangeable or not, that have or have had IDC prices. Bond factor > = .25 Floating rate bonds only. Collateral Types 30 Year Residential. Fixed Rate: STACR-DN, DNA, HQ, HQA, HRP, CAS – C0 Tranche names – B, B1, B2, M3, M2, M1 Normally listed on GSE websites: <a href='https://crt.freddiemac.com/offerings/stacr.aspx#issuance-details'>Freddie Mac</a>, <a href='http://www.fanniemae.com/portal/funding-the-market/credit-risk/transactions.html'>Fannie Mae</a> No private placements No Child Classes (Exchangeable into) or Retained Classes (H bonds) No CIRT, ACIS, SPI Original attachment points and CAS STACR <table style='width:50%'><tr><th>Tier</th><th>Attachment Points</th><th>CAS STACR Class</th></tr><tr><td>0</td><td>> = 0.00 < .25</td><td>STACR Class B, B2; CAS Class B</td></tr><tr><td>1</td><td>> = 0.25 < .95</td><td>STACR Class B1, Old M3; CAS Class B1</td></tr><tr><td>2</td><td>> = 0.95 < 1.75</td><td>STACR Class M3, M2; CAS Class M2</td></tr><tr><td>3</td><td>> = 1.75 < 3.75</td><td>STACR Class M2, M1; CAS Class M1</td></tr><tr><td>Mid</td><td>> = 0.25 < 3.75</td><td>STACR Class Mixed; CAS Class Mixed</td></tr></table> Input data provided by Intex and ICE Data Services. © Andrew Davidson & Co., Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Index, Monthly, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    The AD&Co US Mortgage High Yield Index crOAS, credit-and-option-adjusted spread, is an extension of the traditional OAS measure. On a set of 20 standardized, probabilistically weighted, market-and-model stress scenarios, AD&Co computes a discount rate that equates expected present value of tranche's cash flows to the observed market price; the cash flows are loss-adjusted using AD&Co's LoanDynamics Model (LDM). Investors and fund managers can use the index to assess the broad market returns, risks and opportunities available through investing in a market-weighted, passive portfolio of US mortgage credit risk transfer instruments. The Index also provides a means of comparing the returns of an actively managed portfolio against a passive, naive market portfolio as approximated by the Index. The Mid-Tier and its sub-indices allow for approximations of performance comparisons by vintage or age, across the capital stack, and by initial credit risk level and/or vintage as indicated by original attachment point. <b>Disclaimer:</b> The AD&Co U.S. Mortgage High-Yield Index serves as an informational index and is not for commercial-use purposes. The Index's accuracy, completeness, timeliness and suitability for any purpose are not guaranteed. The Index does not constitute (1) investment, legal, accounting, tax, or other professional advice or (2) any recommendation or solicitation to purchase, hold, sell, or otherwise deal in any investment. This Index has been prepared for general informational purposes, without consideration of the circumstances or objectives of any particular investor. Any reliance on the Index is at the reader's sole risk. All investment is subject to numerous risks, known and unknown. Past performance is no guarantee of future results. For investment advice, seek a qualified investment professional. Not for redistribution without permission. Note: An affiliate of Andrew Davidson & Co., Inc. engages in trading activities in investments that may be the same or similar to those featured in the Index. <b>Index Inclusion Rules</b> Only cash CAS and STACR bonds offered to the public, whether they are exchangeable or not, that have or have had IDC prices. Bond factor > = .25 Floating rate bonds only. Collateral Types 30 Year Residential. Fixed Rate: STACR-DN, DNA, HQ, HQA, HRP, CAS – C0 Tranche names – B, B1, B2, M3, M2, M1 Normally listed on GSE websites: <a href='https://crt.freddiemac.com/offerings/stacr.aspx#issuance-details'>Freddie Mac</a>, <a href='http://www.fanniemae.com/portal/funding-the-market/credit-risk/transactions.html'>Fannie Mae</a> No private placements No Child Classes (Exchangeable into) or Retained Classes (H bonds) No CIRT, ACIS, SPI Original attachment points and CAS STACR <table style='width:50%'><tr><th>Tier</th><th>Attachment Points</th><th>CAS STACR Class</th></tr><tr><td>0</td><td>> = 0.00 < .25</td><td>STACR Class B, B2; CAS Class B</td></tr><tr><td>1</td><td>> = 0.25 < .95</td><td>STACR Class B1, Old M3; CAS Class B1</td></tr><tr><td>2</td><td>> = 0.95 < 1.75</td><td>STACR Class M3, M2; CAS Class M2</td></tr><tr><td>3</td><td>> = 1.75 < 3.75</td><td>STACR Class M2, M1; CAS Class M1</td></tr><tr><td>Mid</td><td>> = 0.25 < 3.75</td><td>STACR Class Mixed; CAS Class Mixed</td></tr></table> Input data provided by Intex and ICE Data Services. © Andrew Davidson & Co., Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Percent, Monthly, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Series Is Presented Here As Two Variables--(1)--Original Data, 1948-1961 (2)--Original Data, 1959-1968. Source: Data For 1948-1960: U.S. Bureau Of The Census, Business Cycle Developments, July 1964. Data For 1961: Secured By Phone Direct From The First National City Bank On December 1, 1964. This NBER data series m13047a appears on the NBER website in Chapter 13 at http://www.nber.org/databases/macrohistory/contents/chapter13.html. NBER Indicator: m13047a

  • Index, Daily, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    The ICE BofA High Yield US Emerging Markets Liquid Corporate Plus Index is a subset of the ICE BofA Emerging Markets Liquid Corporate Plus Index, which includes only securities rated BB1 or lower. The same inclusion rules apply for this series as those that apply for ICE BofA Emerging Markets Liquid Corporate Plus Index (https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/BAMLEMCLLCRPIUSTRIV?cid=32413). When the last calendar day of the month takes place on the weekend, weekend observations will occur as a result of month ending accrued interest adjustments. The index data referenced herein is the property of ICE Data Indices, LLC, its affiliates, ("ICE") and/or its Third Party Suppliers and has been licensed for use by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. ICE, its affiliates and Third Party Suppliers accept no liability in connection with its use. Copyright, 2017, ICE Benchmark Administration. Reprinted with permission.

  • Percent, Monthly, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    Data Are Adjusted For Economic Drift. Source: F.R. Macaulay, The Movement Of Interest Rates, Bond Yields, And Stock Prices In The United States Since 1856 (NBER, 1938), Appendix Table 10, Pp. A142-A161. This NBER data series m13019 appears on the NBER website in Chapter 13 at http://www.nber.org/databases/macrohistory/contents/chapter13.html. NBER Indicator: m13019

  • Percent, Monthly, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    An Arithmetic Average Of The Yield To Maturity On Each Issue Is Based On The Mean Of Monthly High And Low Prices. Beginning January 3, 1929, The Average Yield Is Computed From Thursday'S Closing Prices, The Monthly Index Consisting Of An Average Of The Four Or Five Weekly Indexes For The Month. Beginning April 30, 1930, Wednesday'S Closing Prices Are Used And The Average For The Month Is Taken As Before. Source: Standard And Poor'S Corporation, Data For 1900-1940: "Long Term Security Price Index Record (Through December 31, 1940)", Pp. 137-138. Data For 1941-1942: "Security Price Index Record: 1941 & 1942", P. 16. Data For 1943-1951: "Security Price Index Record", 1952 Edition, P. 175 (Also See 1957 Edition And 1959 Supplement To 1957 Edition). Data For 1952-1967: Current Statistics, July 1952, And Following Monthly Issues. This NBER data series m13023 appears on the NBER website in Chapter 13 at http://www.nber.org/databases/macrohistory/contents/chapter13.html. NBER Indicator: m13023

  • Percent, Daily, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This data represents the semi-annual yield to worst of the ICE BofA High Yield US Emerging Markets Liquid Corporate Plus Index is a subset of the ICE BofA Emerging Markets Liquid Corporate Plus Index, which includes only securities rated BB1 or lower. The same inclusion rules apply for this series as those that apply for ICE BofA Emerging Markets Liquid Corporate Plus Index (https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/BAMLEMCLLCRPIUSTRIV?cid=32413). When the last calendar day of the month takes place on the weekend, weekend observations will occur as a result of month ending accrued interest adjustments. Yield to worst is the lowest potential yield that a bond can generate without the issuer defaulting. The standard US convention for this series is to use semi-annual coupon payments, whereas the standard in the foreign markets is to use coupon payments with frequencies of annual, semi-annual, quarterly, and monthly. The index data referenced herein is the property of ICE Data Indices, LLC, its affiliates, ("ICE") and/or its Third Party Suppliers and has been licensed for use by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. ICE, its affiliates and Third Party Suppliers accept no liability in connection with its use. Copyright, 2017, ICE Benchmark Administration. Reprinted with permission.

  • Percent, Daily, Not Seasonally Adjusted

    This data represents the semi-annual yield to worst of the ICE BofA High Grade Emerging Markets Corporate Plus Index is a subset of the ICE BofA Emerging Markets Corporate Plus Index, which includes only securities rated AAA through BBB3. The same inclusion rules apply for this series as those that apply for ICE BofA Emerging Markets Corporate Plus Index (https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/BAMLEMCBPITRIV?cid=32413). When the last calendar day of the month takes place on the weekend, weekend observations will occur as a result of month ending accrued interest adjustments. Yield to worst is the lowest potential yield that a bond can generate without the issuer defaulting. The standard US convention for this series is to use semi-annual coupon payments, whereas the standard in the foreign markets is to use coupon payments with frequencies of annual, semi-annual, quarterly, and monthly. The index data referenced herein is the property of ICE Data Indices, LLC, its affiliates, ("ICE") and/or its Third Party Suppliers and has been licensed for use by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. ICE, its affiliates and Third Party Suppliers accept no liability in connection with its use. Copyright, 2017, ICE Benchmark Administration. Reprinted with permission.


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