• Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

The U.S. Census Bureau provides annual estimates of income and poverty statistics for all school districts, counties, and states through the Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/saipe/about.html) (SAIPE) program. The bureau's main objective with this program is to provide estimates of income and poverty for the administration of federal programs and the allocation of federal funds to local jurisdictions. In addition to these federal programs, state and local programs use the income and poverty estimates for distributing funds and managing programs. Household income includes income of the householder and all other people 15 years and older in the household, whether or not they are related to the householder. Median is the point that divides the household income distributions into two halves: one-half with income above the median and the other with income below the median. The median is based on the income distribution of all households, including those with no income. A confidence interval is a range of values, from the lower bound to the respective upper bound, that describes the uncertainty surrounding an estimate. A confidence interval is also itself an estimate. It is made using a model of how sampling, interviewing, measuring, and modeling contribute to uncertainty about the relation between the true value of the quantity we are estimating and our estimate of that value. The "90%" in the confidence interval listed above represents a level of certainty about our estimate. If we were to repeatedly make new estimates using exactly the same procedure (by drawing a new sample, conducting new interviews, calculating new estimates and new confidence intervals), the confidence intervals would contain the average of all the estimates 90% of the time. For more details about the confidence intervals and their interpretation, see this explanation (https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/saipe/guidance/confidence-intervals.html).

• Persons, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

• Persons, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

The U.S. Census Bureau provides annual estimates of income and poverty statistics for all school districts, counties, and states through the Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/saipe/about.html) (SAIPE) program. The bureau's main objective with this program is to provide estimates of income and poverty for the administration of federal programs and the allocation of federal funds to local jurisdictions. In addition to these federal programs, state and local programs use the income and poverty estimates for distributing funds and managing programs. Estimates of poverty by ages and families are not direct counts from enumerations or administrative records, nor direct estimates from sample surveys. Instead, for counties and states, the Census models income and poverty estimates by combining survey data with population estimates and administrative records. A confidence interval is a range of values, from the lower bound to the respective upper bound, that describes the uncertainty surrounding an estimate. A confidence interval is also itself an estimate. It is made using a model of how sampling, interviewing, measuring, and modeling contribute to uncertainty about the relation between the true value of the quantity we are estimating and our estimate of that value. The "90%" in the confidence interval listed above represents a level of certainty about our estimate. If we were to repeatedly make new estimates using exactly the same procedure (by drawing a new sample, conducting new interviews, calculating new estimates and new confidence intervals), the confidence intervals would contain the average of all the estimates 90% of the time. For more details about the confidence intervals and their interpretation, see this explanation (https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/saipe/guidance/confidence-intervals.html).

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

The U.S. Census Bureau provides annual estimates of income and poverty statistics for all school districts, counties, and states through the Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/saipe/about.html) (SAIPE) program. The bureau's main objective with this program is to provide estimates of income and poverty for the administration of federal programs and the allocation of federal funds to local jurisdictions. In addition to these federal programs, state and local programs use the income and poverty estimates for distributing funds and managing programs. Estimates of poverty by ages and families are not direct counts from enumerations or administrative records, nor direct estimates from sample surveys. Instead, for counties and states, the Census models income and poverty estimates by combining survey data with population estimates and administrative records. A confidence interval is a range of values, from the lower bound to the respective upper bound, that describes the uncertainty surrounding an estimate. A confidence interval is also itself an estimate. It is made using a model of how sampling, interviewing, measuring, and modeling contribute to uncertainty about the relation between the true value of the quantity we are estimating and our estimate of that value. The "90%" in the confidence interval listed above represents a level of certainty about our estimate. If we were to repeatedly make new estimates using exactly the same procedure (by drawing a new sample, conducting new interviews, calculating new estimates and new confidence intervals), the confidence intervals would contain the average of all the estimates 90% of the time. For more details about the confidence intervals and their interpretation, see this explanation (https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/saipe/guidance/confidence-intervals.html).

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

The U.S. Census Bureau provides annual estimates of income and poverty statistics for all school districts, counties, and states through the Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/saipe/about.html) (SAIPE) program. The bureau's main objective with this program is to provide estimates of income and poverty for the administration of federal programs and the allocation of federal funds to local jurisdictions. In addition to these federal programs, state and local programs use the income and poverty estimates for distributing funds and managing programs. Estimates of poverty by ages and families are not direct counts from enumerations or administrative records, nor direct estimates from sample surveys. Instead, for counties and states, the Census models income and poverty estimates by combining survey data with population estimates and administrative records. A confidence interval is a range of values, from the lower bound to the respective upper bound, that describes the uncertainty surrounding an estimate. A confidence interval is also itself an estimate. It is made using a model of how sampling, interviewing, measuring, and modeling contribute to uncertainty about the relation between the true value of the quantity we are estimating and our estimate of that value. The "90%" in the confidence interval listed above represents a level of certainty about our estimate. If we were to repeatedly make new estimates using exactly the same procedure (by drawing a new sample, conducting new interviews, calculating new estimates and new confidence intervals), the confidence intervals would contain the average of all the estimates 90% of the time. For more details about the confidence intervals and their interpretation, see this explanation (https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/saipe/guidance/confidence-intervals.html).

• Persons, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

• Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

The U.S. Census Bureau provides annual estimates of income and poverty statistics for all school districts, counties, and states through the Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/saipe/about.html) (SAIPE) program. The bureau's main objective with this program is to provide estimates of income and poverty for the administration of federal programs and the allocation of federal funds to local jurisdictions. In addition to these federal programs, state and local programs use the income and poverty estimates for distributing funds and managing programs. Household income includes income of the householder and all other people 15 years and older in the household, whether or not they are related to the householder. Median is the point that divides the household income distributions into two halves: one-half with income above the median and the other with income below the median. The median is based on the income distribution of all households, including those with no income. A confidence interval is a range of values, from the lower bound to the respective upper bound, that describes the uncertainty surrounding an estimate. A confidence interval is also itself an estimate. It is made using a model of how sampling, interviewing, measuring, and modeling contribute to uncertainty about the relation between the true value of the quantity we are estimating and our estimate of that value. The "90%" in the confidence interval listed above represents a level of certainty about our estimate. If we were to repeatedly make new estimates using exactly the same procedure (by drawing a new sample, conducting new interviews, calculating new estimates and new confidence intervals), the confidence intervals would contain the average of all the estimates 90% of the time. For more details about the confidence intervals and their interpretation, see this explanation (https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/saipe/guidance/confidence-intervals.html).

• Persons, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

• Persons, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

The U.S. Census Bureau provides annual estimates of income and poverty statistics for all school districts, counties, and states through the Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/saipe/about.html) (SAIPE) program. The bureau's main objective with this program is to provide estimates of income and poverty for the administration of federal programs and the allocation of federal funds to local jurisdictions. In addition to these federal programs, state and local programs use the income and poverty estimates for distributing funds and managing programs. Estimates of poverty by ages and families are not direct counts from enumerations or administrative records, nor direct estimates from sample surveys. Instead, for counties and states, the Census models income and poverty estimates by combining survey data with population estimates and administrative records. A confidence interval is a range of values, from the lower bound to the respective upper bound, that describes the uncertainty surrounding an estimate. A confidence interval is also itself an estimate. It is made using a model of how sampling, interviewing, measuring, and modeling contribute to uncertainty about the relation between the true value of the quantity we are estimating and our estimate of that value. The "90%" in the confidence interval listed above represents a level of certainty about our estimate. If we were to repeatedly make new estimates using exactly the same procedure (by drawing a new sample, conducting new interviews, calculating new estimates and new confidence intervals), the confidence intervals would contain the average of all the estimates 90% of the time. For more details about the confidence intervals and their interpretation, see this explanation (https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/saipe/guidance/confidence-intervals.html).

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

The U.S. Census Bureau provides annual estimates of income and poverty statistics for all school districts, counties, and states through the Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/saipe/about.html) (SAIPE) program. The bureau's main objective with this program is to provide estimates of income and poverty for the administration of federal programs and the allocation of federal funds to local jurisdictions. In addition to these federal programs, state and local programs use the income and poverty estimates for distributing funds and managing programs. Estimates of poverty by ages and families are not direct counts from enumerations or administrative records, nor direct estimates from sample surveys. Instead, for counties and states, the Census models income and poverty estimates by combining survey data with population estimates and administrative records. A confidence interval is a range of values, from the lower bound to the respective upper bound, that describes the uncertainty surrounding an estimate. A confidence interval is also itself an estimate. It is made using a model of how sampling, interviewing, measuring, and modeling contribute to uncertainty about the relation between the true value of the quantity we are estimating and our estimate of that value. The "90%" in the confidence interval listed above represents a level of certainty about our estimate. If we were to repeatedly make new estimates using exactly the same procedure (by drawing a new sample, conducting new interviews, calculating new estimates and new confidence intervals), the confidence intervals would contain the average of all the estimates 90% of the time. For more details about the confidence intervals and their interpretation, see this explanation (https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/saipe/guidance/confidence-intervals.html).

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

The U.S. Census Bureau provides annual estimates of income and poverty statistics for all school districts, counties, and states through the Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/saipe/about.html) (SAIPE) program. The bureau's main objective with this program is to provide estimates of income and poverty for the administration of federal programs and the allocation of federal funds to local jurisdictions. In addition to these federal programs, state and local programs use the income and poverty estimates for distributing funds and managing programs. Estimates of poverty by ages and families are not direct counts from enumerations or administrative records, nor direct estimates from sample surveys. Instead, for counties and states, the Census models income and poverty estimates by combining survey data with population estimates and administrative records. A confidence interval is a range of values, from the lower bound to the respective upper bound, that describes the uncertainty surrounding an estimate. A confidence interval is also itself an estimate. It is made using a model of how sampling, interviewing, measuring, and modeling contribute to uncertainty about the relation between the true value of the quantity we are estimating and our estimate of that value. The "90%" in the confidence interval listed above represents a level of certainty about our estimate. If we were to repeatedly make new estimates using exactly the same procedure (by drawing a new sample, conducting new interviews, calculating new estimates and new confidence intervals), the confidence intervals would contain the average of all the estimates 90% of the time. For more details about the confidence intervals and their interpretation, see this explanation (https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/saipe/guidance/confidence-intervals.html).

• Persons, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

• Rate per 100,000, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Age-adjusted death rates are weighted averages of the age-specific death rates, where the weights represent a fixed population by age. They are used to compare relative mortality risk among groups and over time. An age-adjusted rate represents the rate that would have existed had the age-specific rates of the particular year prevailed in a population whose age distribution was the same as that of the fixed population. Age-adjusted rates should be viewed as relative indexes rather than as direct or actual measures of mortality risk. However, you can select other standard populations, or select specific population criteria to determine the age distribution ratios. Premature death rate includes all deaths where the deceased is younger than 75 years of age. 75 years of age is the standard consideration of a premature death according to the CDC's definition of Years of Potential Life Loss. Starting with the 2019 vintage, the CDC no longer calculates rates for a county when the death count is less than 20, marking them as "unreliable." FRED records these instances as missing observations in the series. For more information see the Frequently Asked Questions about Death Rates (https://wonder.cdc.gov/wonder/help/cmf.html#Frequently%20Asked%20Questions%20about%20Death%20Rates).

• Index 2000=100, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

As stated by the source, these annual county indexes should be considered developmental. As with the standard FHFA HPIs, revisions to these indexes may reflect the impact of new data or technical adjustments. Indexes are calibrated using appraisal values and sales prices for mortgages bought or guaranteed by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. As discussed in the Working Paper 16-01, in cases where sample sizes are small for the county area, an index is either not reported if recording has not started or a missing value is reported with a period (.). Index values always reflect the native county index, i.e. they are not made with data from another area or year. For tracking and feedback purposes, please cite Working Paper 16-01 when using these data. A suggested form is: Bogin, A., Doerner, W. and Larson, W. (2016). Local House Price Dynamics: New Indices and Stylized Facts. Federal Housing Finance Agency, Working Paper 16-01. The working paper is accessible at http://www.fhfa.gov/papers/wp1601.aspx.

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Estimate of educational attainment for population 18 years old and over whose highest degree was a bachelor’s, master’s, or professional or doctorate degree. (ACS variable S1501_C02_015E from table S1501.) For more information about the subject definitions, see: https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/technical-documentation/code-lists.html. Multiyear estimates from the American Community Survey (ACS) are "period" estimates derived from a data sample collected over a period of time, as opposed to "point-in-time" estimates such as those from past decennial censuses. ACS 5-year estimates include data collected over a 60-month period. The date associated with the data is the end of the 5-year period. For example, a value dated 2014 represents data from 2010 to 2014. However, the value does not describe any specific day, month, or year within that time period. Multiyear estimates require some additional considerations. For example, multiyear estimates released in consecutive years consist mostly of overlapping years and shared data. The 2010-2014 ACS 5-year estimates share sample data from 2011 through 2014 with the 2011-2015 ACS 5-year estimates. Because of this overlap, users should use extreme caution in making comparisons with consecutive years of multiyear estimates. Please see the ACS handbook (Section 3, "Understanding and Using ACS Single-Year and Multiyear Estimates," p. 13) for a comprehensive set of details and clarifications: https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2018/acs/acs_general_handbook_2018.pdf

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Burdened households are those households who pay 30 percent or more of their household income on housing (such as rent or mortgage expenses). This is calculated as the sum of households with a mortgage spending 30.0-34.9% of their income on selected monthly owner costs, households with a mortgage spending 35.0% or more of their income on selected monthly owner costs, households without a mortgage spending 30.0-34.9% of their income on selected monthly owner costs, households without a mortgage spending 35.0% or more of their income on selected monthly owner costs, households that rent spending 30.0-34.9% of their income on gross rent, and households that rent spending 35.0% or more of their income on gross rent (ACS 5-year variables DP04_0114E, DP04_0115E, DP04_0123E, DP04_0124E, DP04_0141E, and DP04_0142E respectively from table DP04) divided by the sum of the total number of households with a mortgage, the total number of households without a mortgage, and the total number of households that rent (ACS 5-year variables DP04_0110E, DP04_0117E, and DP04_0136E respectively from table DP04). Note that the calculation excludes households where selected monthly owner costs or gross rent cannot be calculated. Selected monthly owner costs are the sum of payments for mortgages, deeds of trust, contracts to purchase, or similar debts on the property (including payments for the first mortgage, second mortgages, home equity loans, and other junior mortgages); real estate taxes; fire, hazard, and flood insurance on the property; utilities (electricity, gas, and water and sewer); and fuels (oil, coal, kerosene, wood, etc.). It also includes, where appropriate, the monthly condominium fee for condominiums and mobile home costs (installment loan payments, personal property taxes, site rent, registration fees, and license fees). Gross rent provides information on the monthly housing cost expenses for renters. Gross rent is the contract rent plus the estimated average monthly cost of utilities (electricity, gas, and water and sewer) and fuels (oil, coal, kerosene, wood, etc.) if these are paid by the renter (or paid for the renter by someone else). Gross rent is intended to eliminate differentials that result from varying practices with respect to the inclusion of utilities and fuels as part of the rental payment. The estimated costs of water and sewer, and fuels are reported on a 12-month basis but are converted to monthly figures for the tabulations. Multiyear estimates from the American Community Survey (ACS) are "period" estimates derived from a data sample collected over a period of time, as opposed to "point-in-time" estimates such as those from past decennial censuses. ACS 5-year estimate includes data collected over a 60-month period. The date of the data is the end of the 5-year period. For example, a value dated 2014 represents data from 2010 to 2014. However, they do not describe any specific day, month, or year within that time period. Multiyear estimates require some considerations that single-year estimates do not. For example, multiyear estimates released in consecutive years consist mostly of overlapping years and shared data. The 2010-2014 ACS 5-year estimates share sample data from 2011 through 2014 with the 2011-2015 ACS 5-year estimates. Because of this overlap, users should use extreme caution in making comparisons with consecutive years of multiyear estimates. Please see "Section 3: Understanding and Using ACS Single-Year and Multiyear Estimates" on publication page 13 (file page 19) of the 2018 ACS General Handbook (https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2018/acs/acs_general_handbook_2018.pdf) for a more thorough clarification.

• Persons, Monthly, Not Seasonally Adjusted

These data come from the Current Population Survey (CPS), also known as the household survey. Civilian Labor Force includes all persons in the civilian noninstitutional population ages 16 and older classified as either employed or unemployed. Employed persons are all persons who, during the reference week (the week including the 12th day of the month), (a) did any work as paid employees, worked in their own business or profession or on their own farm, or worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in an enterprise operated by a member of their family, or (b) were not working but who had jobs from which they were temporarily absent because of vacation, illness, bad weather, childcare problems, maternity or paternity leave, labor-management dispute, job training, or other family or personal reasons, whether or not they were paid for the time off or were seeking other jobs. Each employed person is counted only once, even if he or she holds more than one job. Unemployed persons are all persons who had no employment during the reference week, were available for work, except for temporary illness, and had made specific efforts to find employment some time during the 4 week-period ending with the reference week. Persons who were waiting to be recalled to a job from which they had been laid off need not have been looking for work to be classified as unemployed. For more details, see the release's <a href=https://www.bls.gov/lau/laufaq.htm>frequently asked questions</a>.

• Known Offenses, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

The series represents the sum of violent crimes and property crimes as reported by county law enforcement agencies from the FBI Uniform Crime Reporting: Crime in the United States, Table 10: Offenses Known to Law Enforcement, by State by Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Counties. Note that these data do not represent county totals as they exclude crime counts for city agencies and other types of agencies that have jurisdiction within each county. The FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program collects the number of offenses that come to the attention of law enforcement for violent crime and property crime, as well as data regarding clearances of these offenses. In addition, the FBI collects auxiliary information about these offenses (e.g., time of day of burglaries). Violent crime is composed of four offenses: murder and non-negligent manslaughter, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault. Violent crimes are defined in the UCR Program as those offenses that involve force or threat of force. Property crime includes the offenses of burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson. The object of the theft-type offenses is the taking of money or property, but there is no force or threat of force against the victims. See Table 10 Data Declaration (https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2018/crime-in-the-u.s.-2018/tables/table-10/table-10-data-declaration) for more information.

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Disconnected Youth represents the percentage of youth in a county who are between the ages of 16 and 19, who are not enrolled in school and who are unemployed or not in the labor force. (ACS 5 year variables from table DP02) Multiyear estimates from the American Community Survey (ACS) are "period" estimates derived from a data sample collected over a period of time as opposed to "point-in-time" estimates such as those from past decennial censuses. ACS 5-year estimate includes data collected over a 60-month period. The date of the data is the end of the 5-year period. For example, a value dated 2014 represents data from 2010 to 2014. However, they do not describe any specific day, month, or year within that time period. Multiyear estimates require some considerations that single-year estimates do not. For example, multiyear estimates released in consecutive years consist mostly of overlapping years and shared data. The 2010-2014 ACS 5-year estimates share sample data from 2011 through 2014 with the 2011-2015 ACS 5-year estimates. Because of this overlap, users should use extreme caution in making comparisons with consecutive years of multiyear estimates. Please see "Section 3: Understanding and Using ACS Single-Year and Multiyear Estimates" on publication page 13 (file page 19) of the 2018 ACS General Handbook for a more thorough clarification. https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2018/acs/acs_general_handbook_2018.pdf The data is determined from the following calculation: (B14005_010E + B14005_011E + B14005_014E + B14005_015E + B14005_024E + B14005_025E + B14005_028E + B14005_029E) / B14005_001E

• Persons, Monthly, Not Seasonally Adjusted

These data come from the Current Population Survey (CPS), also known as the household survey. Civilian Labor Force includes all persons in the civilian noninstitutional population ages 16 and older classified as either employed or unemployed. Employed persons are all persons who, during the reference week (the week including the 12th day of the month), (a) did any work as paid employees, worked in their own business or profession or on their own farm, or worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in an enterprise operated by a member of their family, or (b) were not working but who had jobs from which they were temporarily absent because of vacation, illness, bad weather, childcare problems, maternity or paternity leave, labor-management dispute, job training, or other family or personal reasons, whether or not they were paid for the time off or were seeking other jobs. Each employed person is counted only once, even if he or she holds more than one job. Unemployed persons are all persons who had no employment during the reference week, were available for work, except for temporary illness, and had made specific efforts to find employment some time during the 4 week-period ending with the reference week. Persons who were waiting to be recalled to a job from which they had been laid off need not have been looking for work to be classified as unemployed. For more details, see the release's <a href=https://www.bls.gov/lau/laufaq.htm>frequently asked questions</a>.

• Percent, Quarterly, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Estimate of the percentage of the population with a credit score below 660. Counties with fewer than 20 people in the sample are not reported for privacy reasons. The estimate is based on the representative primary sample of the New York Fed Consumer Credit Panel, which includes only the primary sample member per household (about 5% of the U.S. credit report population, defined as all U.S. residents with a credit history). For more details about the data and sample, see "An Introduction to the Consumer Credit Panel" (https://www.newyorkfed.org/research/staff_reports/sr479.html). Source: Federal Reserve Bank of New York/Equifax Consumer Credit Panel Reprinted with permission. Copyright © 2016, Equifax. All rights reserved. Reproduction of median credit score per county in any form is prohibited except with the prior written permission of Equifax.

• Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

The U.S. Census Bureau provides annual estimates of income and poverty statistics for all school districts, counties, and states through the Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/saipe/about.html) (SAIPE) program. The bureau's main objective with this program is to provide estimates of income and poverty for the administration of federal programs and the allocation of federal funds to local jurisdictions. In addition to these federal programs, state and local programs use the income and poverty estimates for distributing funds and managing programs. Household income includes income of the householder and all other people 15 years and older in the household, whether or not they are related to the householder. Median is the point that divides the household income distributions into two halves: one-half with income above the median and the other with income below the median. The median is based on the income distribution of all households, including those with no income.

• Persons, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

• Persons, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

• Persons, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

• Years of Age, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Multiyear estimates from the American Community Survey (ACS) are "period" estimates derived from a data sample collected over a period of time, as opposed to "point-in-time" estimates such as those from past decennial censuses. ACS 5-year estimate includes data collected over a 60-month period. The date of the data is the end of the 5-year period. For example, a value dated 2014 represents data from 2010 to 2014. However, they do not describe any specific day, month, or year within that time period. Multiyear estimates require some considerations that single-year estimates do not. For example, multiyear estimates released in consecutive years consist mostly of overlapping years and shared data. The 2010-2014 ACS 5-year estimates share sample data from 2011 through 2014 with the 2011-2015 ACS 5-year estimates. Because of this overlap, users should use extreme caution in making comparisons with consecutive years of multiyear estimates. Please see "Section 3: Understanding and Using ACS Single-Year and Multiyear Estimates" on publication page 13 (file page 19) of the 2018 ACS General Handbook (https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2018/acs/acs_general_handbook_2018.pdf) for a more thorough clarification.

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

The U.S. Census Bureau provides annual estimates of income and poverty statistics for all school districts, counties, and states through the Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/saipe/about.html) (SAIPE) program. The bureau's main objective with this program is to provide estimates of income and poverty for the administration of federal programs and the allocation of federal funds to local jurisdictions. In addition to these federal programs, state and local programs use the income and poverty estimates for distributing funds and managing programs. Estimates of poverty by ages and families are not direct counts from enumerations or administrative records, nor direct estimates from sample surveys. Instead, for counties and states, the Census models income and poverty estimates by combining survey data with population estimates and administrative records.

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

The U.S. Census Bureau provides annual estimates of income and poverty statistics for all school districts, counties, and states through the Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/saipe/about.html) (SAIPE) program. The bureau's main objective with this program is to provide estimates of income and poverty for the administration of federal programs and the allocation of federal funds to local jurisdictions. In addition to these federal programs, state and local programs use the income and poverty estimates for distributing funds and managing programs. Estimates of poverty by ages and families are not direct counts from enumerations or administrative records, nor direct estimates from sample surveys. Instead, for counties and states, the Census models income and poverty estimates by combining survey data with population estimates and administrative records.

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

The U.S. Census Bureau provides annual estimates of income and poverty statistics for all school districts, counties, and states through the Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/saipe/about.html) (SAIPE) program. The bureau's main objective with this program is to provide estimates of income and poverty for the administration of federal programs and the allocation of federal funds to local jurisdictions. In addition to these federal programs, state and local programs use the income and poverty estimates for distributing funds and managing programs. Estimates of poverty by ages and families are not direct counts from enumerations or administrative records, nor direct estimates from sample surveys. Instead, for counties and states, the Census models income and poverty estimates by combining survey data with population estimates and administrative records.

• Thousands of U.S. Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

GDP by county is a measure of the market value of final goods and services produced within a county area in a particular period. While other measures of county economies rely mainly on labor market data, these statistics incorporate multiple data sources that capture trends in labor, revenue, and value of production. As a result, the capital-intensive industries are captured more fully than when measured solely by labor data.

• Thousands of U.S. Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

GDP by county is a measure of the market value of final goods and services produced within a county area in a particular period. While other measures of county economies rely mainly on labor market data, these statistics incorporate multiple data sources that capture trends in labor, revenue, and value of production. As a result, the capital-intensive industries are captured more fully than when measured solely by labor data.

• Thousands of U.S. Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

GDP by county is a measure of the market value of final goods and services produced within a county area in a particular period. While other measures of county economies rely mainly on labor market data, these statistics incorporate multiple data sources that capture trends in labor, revenue, and value of production. As a result, the capital-intensive industries are captured more fully than when measured solely by labor data.

• Thousands of U.S. Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

GDP by county is a measure of the market value of final goods and services produced within a county area in a particular period. While other measures of county economies rely mainly on labor market data, these statistics incorporate multiple data sources that capture trends in labor, revenue, and value of production. As a result, the capital-intensive industries are captured more fully than when measured solely by labor data.

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Estimate of educational attainment for population 18 years old and over using 5 years of data. The percent of the population who is a High School Graduate or Higher includes people whose highest degree was a high school diploma or its equivalent, people who attended college but did not receive a degree, and people who received an associate's, bachelor's, master's, or professional or doctorate degree. People who reported completing 12th grade but not receiving a diploma are not included. (ACS variable S1501_C02_014E from table S1501.) For more information about the subject definitions, see: https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/technical-documentation/code-lists.html. Multiyear estimates from the American Community Survey (ACS) are "period" estimates derived from a data sample collected over a period of time, as opposed to "point-in-time" estimates such as those from past decennial censuses. ACS 5-year estimates include data collected over a 60-month period. The date associated with the data is the end of the 5-year period. For example, a value dated 2014 represents data from 2010 to 2014. However, the value does not describe any specific day, month, or year within that time period. Multiyear estimates require some additional considerations. For example, multiyear estimates released in consecutive years consist mostly of overlapping years and shared data. The 2010-2014 ACS 5-year estimates share sample data from 2011 through 2014 with the 2011-2015 ACS 5-year estimates. Because of this overlap, users should use extreme caution in making comparisons with consecutive years of multiyear estimates. Please see the ACS handbook (Section 3, "Understanding and Using ACS Single-Year and Multiyear Estimates," p. 13) for a comprehensive set of details and clarifications: https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2018/acs/acs_general_handbook_2018.pdf

• Rate, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

The homeownership rate is computed by dividing the number of households that are owner-occupied by the total number of occupied housing units (ACS 5-year variables B25008_001E and B25008_002E from table B25008, respectively). A housing unit is owner-occupied if the owner or co-owner lives in the unit, even if it is mortgaged or not fully paid for. A housing unit is classified as occupied if it is the current place of residence of the person or group of people living in it at the time of interview, or if the occupants are only temporarily absent from the residence for two months or less (e.g., on vacation or a business trip). If all the people staying in the unit at the time of the interview are staying there for two months or less, the unit is considered to be temporarily occupied and classified as "vacant." Multiyear estimates from the American Community Survey (ACS) are "period" estimates derived from a data sample collected over a period of time, as opposed to "point-in-time" estimates such as those from past decennial censuses. ACS 5-year estimate includes data collected over a 60-month period. The date of the data is the end of the 5-year period. For example, a value dated 2014 represents data from 2010 to 2014. However, they do not describe any specific day, month, or year within that time period. Multiyear estimates require some considerations that single-year estimates do not. For example, multiyear estimates released in consecutive years consist mostly of overlapping years and shared data. The 2010-2014 ACS 5-year estimates share sample data from 2011 through 2014 with the 2011-2015 ACS 5-year estimates. Because of this overlap, users should use extreme caution in making comparisons with consecutive years of multiyear estimates. Please see "Section 3: Understanding and Using ACS Single-Year and Multiyear Estimates" on publication page 13 (file page 19) of the 2018 ACS General Handbook (https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2018/acs/acs_general_handbook_2018.pdf) for a more thorough clarification.

• Ratio, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

This data represents the ratio of the mean income for the highest quintile (top 20 percent) of earners divided by the mean income of the lowest quintile (bottom 20 percent) of earners in a particular county. Multiyear estimates from the American Community Survey (ACS) are "period" estimates derived from a data sample collected over a period of time, as opposed to "point-in-time" estimates such as those from past decennial censuses. ACS 5-year estimate includes data collected over a 60-month period. The date of the data is the end of the 5-year period. For example, a value dated 2014 represents data from 2010 to 2014. However, they do not describe any specific day, month, or year within that time period. Multiyear estimates require some considerations that single-year estimates do not. For example, multiyear estimates released in consecutive years consist mostly of overlapping years and shared data. The 2010–2014 ACS 5-year estimates share sample data from 2011 through 2014 with the 2011–2015 ACS 5-year estimates. Because of this overlap, users should use extreme caution in making comparisons with consecutive years of multiyear estimates. Please see "Section 3: Understanding and Using ACS Single-Year and Multiyear Estimates" on publication page 13 (file page 19) of the 2018 ACS General Handbook for a more thorough clarification. https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2018/acs/acs_general_handbook_2018.pdf

• Minutes, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Mean commuting time is calculated by dividing the aggregate travel time to work for all workers (in minutes) by the total number of workers, 16-years old and older, who commute (ACS 5-year variables B08013_001E from table B08013 and B08012_001E from table B08012, respectively). Multiyear estimates from the American Community Survey (ACS) are "period" estimates derived from a data sample collected over a period of time, as opposed to "point-in-time" estimates such as those from past decennial censuses. ACS 5-year estimate includes data collected over a 60-month period. The date of the data is the end of the 5-year period. For example, a value dated 2014 represents data from 2010 to 2014. However, they do not describe any specific day, month, or year within that time period. Multiyear estimates require some considerations that single-year estimates do not. For example, multiyear estimates released in consecutive years consist mostly of overlapping years and shared data. The 2010–2014 ACS 5-year estimates share sample data from 2011 through 2014 with the 2011–2015 ACS 5-year estimates. Because of this overlap, users should use extreme caution in making comparisons with consecutive years of multiyear estimates. Please see "Section 3: Understanding and Using ACS Single-Year and Multiyear Estimates" on publication page 13 (file page 19) of the 2018 ACS General Handbook (https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2018/acs/acs_general_handbook_2018.pdf) for a more thorough clarification.

• Persons, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

The American Community Survey (ACS) and the Puerto Rico Community Survey (PRCS) ask respondents age 1 year and over whether they lived in the same residence 1 year ago. For people who lived in a different residence, the location of their previous residence is collected. ACS uses a series of monthly samples to produce estimates. The 5-year dataset is used for the county-to-county migration flows since many counties have a population less than 20,000. Multiyear estimates from the American Community Survey (ACS) are "period" estimates derived from a data sample collected over a period of time, as opposed to "point-in-time" estimates such as those from past decennial censuses. ACS 5-year estimate includes data collected over a 60-month period. The date of the data is the end of the 5-year period. For example, a value dated 2014 represents data from 2010 to 2014. However, they do not describe any specific day, month, or year within that time period. Multiyear estimates require some considerations that single-year estimates do not. For example, multiyear estimates released in consecutive years consist mostly of overlapping years and shared data. The 2010-2014 ACS 5-year estimates share sample data from 2011 through 2014 with the 2011-2015 ACS 5-year estimates. Because of this overlap, users should use extreme caution in making comparisons with consecutive years of multiyear estimates. Please see "Section 3: Understanding and Using ACS Single-Year and Multiyear Estimates" on publication page 13 (file page 19) of the 2018 ACS General Handbook (https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2018/acs/acs_general_handbook_2018.pdf) for a more thorough clarification.

• Units, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

This series represents the total number of building permits for all structure types. Structure types include 1-unit, 2-unit, 3-unit, 4-unit, and 5-unit or more.

• Establishments, Quarterly, Not Seasonally Adjusted

An establishment is an economic unit, such as a factory, mine, store, or office that produces goods or services. It generally is at a single location and is engaged predominantly in one type of economic activity. Where a single location encompasses two or more distinct activities, these are treated as separate establishments, if separate payroll records are available, and the various activities are classified under different industry codes.

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Estimate of educational attainment for population 25 years old and over using 5 years of data. The percent of the population who has completed an Associate's degree or higher is calculated by FRED by adding the following variables from the 5-year American Community Survey (ACS) percent of the population with an Associate's Degree, percent of the population with a Bachelor's degree, and percent of the population with a Graduate or Professional degree. (ACS variables S1501_C02_011E, S1501_C02_012E, S1501_C02_013E from table S1501.) For more information about the subject definitions, see: https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/technical-documentation/code-lists.html. Multiyear estimates from the American Community Survey (ACS) are "period" estimates derived from a data sample collected over a period of time, as opposed to "point-in-time" estimates such as those from past decennial censuses. ACS 5-year estimates include data collected over a 60-month period. The date associated with the data is the end of the 5-year period. For example, a value dated 2014 represents data from 2010 to 2014. However, the value does not describe any specific day, month, or year within that time period. Multiyear estimates require some additional considerations. For example, multiyear estimates released in consecutive years consist mostly of overlapping years and shared data. The 2010-2014 ACS 5-year estimates share sample data from 2011 through 2014 with the 2011-2015 ACS 5-year estimates. Because of this overlap, users should use extreme caution in making comparisons with consecutive years of multiyear estimates. Please see the ACS handbook (Section 3, "Understanding and Using ACS Single-Year and Multiyear Estimates," p. 13) for a comprehensive set of details and clarifications: https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2018/acs/acs_general_handbook_2018.pdf

• Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Personal income is the income that is received by persons from all sources. It is calculated as the sum of wages and salaries, supplements to wages and salaries, proprietors' income with inventory valuation and capital consumption adjustments, rental income of persons with capital consumption adjustment, personal dividend income, personal interest income, and personal current transfer receipts, less contributions for government social insurance. This measure of income is calculated as the personal income of the residents of a given area divided by the resident population of the area. In computing per capita personal income, BEA uses the Census Bureau's annual midyear population estimates.

• Percent, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

The percentage of population below the poverty level comes from American Community Survey (ACS) variable S1701_C03_001E in table S1701. Multiyear estimates from the American Community Survey (ACS) are "period" estimates derived from a data sample collected over a period of time, as opposed to "point-in-time" estimates such as those from past decennial censuses. ACS 5-year estimate includes data collected over a 60-month period. The date of the data is the end of the 5-year period. For example, a value dated 2014 represents data from 2010 to 2014. However, they do not describe any specific day, month, or year within that time period. Multiyear estimates require some considerations that single-year estimates do not. For example, multiyear estimates released in consecutive years consist mostly of overlapping years and shared data. The 2010-2014 ACS 5-year estimates share sample data from 2011 through 2014 with the 2011-2015 ACS 5-year estimates. Because of this overlap, users should use extreme caution in making comparisons with consecutive years of multiyear estimates. Please see "Section 3: Understanding and Using ACS Single-Year and Multiyear Estimates" on publication page 13 (file page 19) of the 2018 ACS General Handbook (https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2018/acs/acs_general_handbook_2018.pdf) for a more thorough clarification.

• Thousands of Dollars, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Personal Income is the income that is received by all persons from all sources. It is calculated as the sum of wages and salaries, supplements to wages and salaries, proprietors' income with inventory valuation and capital consumption adjustments, rental income of persons with capital consumption adjustment, personal dividend income, personal interest income, and personal current transfer receipts, less contributions for government social insurance. The personal income of an area is the income that is received by, or on behalf of, all the individuals who live in the area; therefore, the estimates of personal income are presented by the place of residence of the income recipients.

• Persons, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Data obtained from ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates, table DP05. Multiyear estimates from the American Community Survey (ACS) are "period" estimates derived from a data sample collected over a period of time, as opposed to "point-in-time" estimates such as those from past decennial censuses. ACS 5-year estimate includes data collected over a 60-month period. The date of the data is the end of the 5-year period. For example, a value dated 2014 represents data from 2010 to 2014. However, they do not describe any specific day, month, or year within that time period. Multiyear estimates require some considerations that single-year estimates do not. For example, multiyear estimates released in consecutive years consist mostly of overlapping years and shared data. The 2010-2014 ACS 5-year estimates share sample data from 2011 through 2014 with the 2011-2015 ACS 5-year estimates. Because of this overlap, users should use extreme caution in making comparisons with consecutive years of multiyear estimates. Please see "Section 3: Understanding and Using ACS Single-Year and Multiyear Estimates" on publication page 13 (file page 19) of the 2018 ACS General Handbook (https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2018/acs/acs_general_handbook_2018.pdf) for a more thorough clarification.

• Persons, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Data obtained from ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates, table DP05. Multiyear estimates from the American Community Survey (ACS) are "period" estimates derived from a data sample collected over a period of time, as opposed to "point-in-time" estimates such as those from past decennial censuses. ACS 5-year estimate includes data collected over a 60-month period. The date of the data is the end of the 5-year period. For example, a value dated 2014 represents data from 2010 to 2014. However, they do not describe any specific day, month, or year within that time period. Multiyear estimates require some considerations that single-year estimates do not. For example, multiyear estimates released in consecutive years consist mostly of overlapping years and shared data. The 2010-2014 ACS 5-year estimates share sample data from 2011 through 2014 with the 2011-2015 ACS 5-year estimates. Because of this overlap, users should use extreme caution in making comparisons with consecutive years of multiyear estimates. Please see "Section 3: Understanding and Using ACS Single-Year and Multiyear Estimates" on publication page 13 (file page 19) of the 2018 ACS General Handbook (https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2018/acs/acs_general_handbook_2018.pdf) for a more thorough clarification.

• Persons, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Data obtained from ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates, table DP05. Multiyear estimates from the American Community Survey (ACS) are "period" estimates derived from a data sample collected over a period of time, as opposed to "point-in-time" estimates such as those from past decennial censuses. ACS 5-year estimate includes data collected over a 60-month period. The date of the data is the end of the 5-year period. For example, a value dated 2014 represents data from 2010 to 2014. However, they do not describe any specific day, month, or year within that time period. Multiyear estimates require some considerations that single-year estimates do not. For example, multiyear estimates released in consecutive years consist mostly of overlapping years and shared data. The 2010-2014 ACS 5-year estimates share sample data from 2011 through 2014 with the 2011-2015 ACS 5-year estimates. Because of this overlap, users should use extreme caution in making comparisons with consecutive years of multiyear estimates. Please see "Section 3: Understanding and Using ACS Single-Year and Multiyear Estimates" on publication page 13 (file page 19) of the 2018 ACS General Handbook (https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2018/acs/acs_general_handbook_2018.pdf) for a more thorough clarification.

• Persons, Annual, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Data obtained from ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates, table DP05. Multiyear estimates from the American Community Survey (ACS) are "period" estimates derived from a data sample collected over a period of time, as opposed to "point-in-time" estimates such as those from past decennial censuses. ACS 5-year estimate includes data collected over a 60-month period. The date of the data is the end of the 5-year period. For example, a value dated 2014 represents data from 2010 to 2014. However, they do not describe any specific day, month, or year within that time period. Multiyear estimates require some considerations that single-year estimates do not. For example, multiyear estimates released in consecutive years consist mostly of overlapping years and shared data. The 2010-2014 ACS 5-year estimates share sample data from 2011 through 2014 with the 2011-2015 ACS 5-year estimates. Because of this overlap, users should use extreme caution in making comparisons with consecutive years of multiyear estimates. Please see "Section 3: Understanding and Using ACS Single-Year and Multiyear Estimates" on publication page 13 (file page 19) of the 2018 ACS General Handbook (https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2018/acs/acs_general_handbook_2018.pdf) for a more thorough clarification.