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NOTES

Source: S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC  

Release: Dow Jones Averages  

Units:  Index, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Frequency:  Daily

Notes:

The Dow Jones Industrial Average provides a view of the US stock market and economy. Originally, the index was made up of 12 stocks, it now contains 30 component companies in various industries. Visit their website for more components based information and general information.

Copyright © 2016, S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC. All rights reserved. Reproduction of Dow Jones Industrial Average in any form is prohibited except with the prior written permission of S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC ("S&P"). S&P does not guarantee the accuracy, adequacy, completeness or availability of any information and is not responsible for any errors or omissions, regardless of the cause or for the results obtained from the use of such information. S&P DISCLAIMS ANY AND ALL EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ANY WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE. In no event shall S&P be liable for any direct, indirect, special or consequential damages, costs, expenses, legal fees, or losses (including lost income or lost profit and opportunity costs) in connection with subscriber's or others' use of Dow Jones Industrial Average.

Permission to reproduce this series can be requested from index_services@spdji.com. More contact details are available, including phone numbers for all regional offices.

Suggested Citation:

S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC, Dow Jones Industrial Average [DJIA], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/DJIA, September 20, 2019.

Source: ICE Benchmark Administration Limited (IBA)  

Release: LBMA Gold Price: Daily Prices  

Units:  U.S. Dollars per Troy Ounce, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Frequency:  Daily

Notes:

The London Bullion Market Association (LBMA) Gold Price was launched on the 20th March 2015 to replace the historic London Gold Fix. ICE Benchmark Administration (IBA) provides the auction platform, methodology as well as overall independent administration and governance for the LBMA Gold Price, with the LBMA holding the intellectual property rights. The price continues to be set twice daily (at 10:30 and 15:00 London GMT) in US dollars. Sterling and Euro prices are available but they are indicative prices for settlement only. For further information contact the LBMA at Au.Consult@lbma.org.uk or the IBA at iba@theice.com.
Copyright, 2016, ICE Benchmark Administration.

Suggested Citation:

ICE Benchmark Administration Limited (IBA), Gold Fixing Price 10:30 A.M. (London time) in London Bullion Market, based in U.S. Dollars [GOLDAMGBD228NLBM], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/GOLDAMGBD228NLBM, September 20, 2019.

Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (US)  

Release: H.15 Selected Interest Rates  

Units:  Percent, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Frequency:  Daily, 7-Day

Notes:

The federal funds rate is the interest rate at which depository institutions trade federal funds (balances held at Federal Reserve Banks) with each other overnight. When a depository institution has surplus balances in its reserve account, it lends to other banks in need of larger balances. In simpler terms, a bank with excess cash, which is often referred to as liquidity, will lend to another bank that needs to quickly raise liquidity. (1) The rate that the borrowing institution pays to the lending institution is determined between the two banks; the weighted average rate for all of these types of negotiations is called the effective federal funds rate.(2) The effective federal funds rate is essentially determined by the market but is influenced by the Federal Reserve through open market operations to reach the federal funds rate target.(2)

The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) meets eight times a year to determine the federal funds target rate. As previously stated, this rate influences the effective federal funds rate through open market operations or by buying and selling of government bonds (government debt).(2) More specifically, the Federal Reserve decreases liquidity by selling government bonds, thereby raising the federal funds rate because banks have less liquidity to trade with other banks. Similarly, the Federal Reserve can increase liquidity by buying government bonds, decreasing the federal funds rate because banks have excess liquidity for trade. Whether the Federal Reserve wants to buy or sell bonds depends on the state of the economy. If the FOMC believes the economy is growing too fast and inflation pressures are inconsistent with the dual mandate of the Federal Reserve, the Committee may set a higher federal funds rate target to temper economic activity. In the opposing scenario, the FOMC may set a lower federal funds rate target to spur greater economic activity. Therefore, the FOMC must observe the current state of the economy to determine the best course of monetary policy that will maximize economic growth while adhering to the dual mandate set forth by Congress. In making its monetary policy decisions, the FOMC considers a wealth of economic data, such as: trends in prices and wages, employment, consumer spending and income, business investments, and foreign exchange markets.

The federal funds rate is the central interest rate in the U.S. financial market. It influences other interest rates such as the prime rate, which is the rate banks charge their customers with higher credit ratings. Additionally, the federal funds rate indirectly influences longer- term interest rates such as mortgages, loans, and savings, all of which are very important to consumer wealth and confidence.(2)

References
(1) Federal Reserve Bank of New York. "Federal funds." Fedpoints, August 2007.
(2) . Monetary Policy, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

Suggested Citation:

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (US), Effective Federal Funds Rate [DFF], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/DFF, September 20, 2019.

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration  

Release: Spot Prices  

Units:  Dollars per Gallon, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Frequency:  Daily

Notes:

Definitions, Sources and Explanatory Notes: http://www.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/TblDefs/pet_pri_spt_tbldef2.asp

Suggested Citation:

U.S. Energy Information Administration, Ultra-Low-Sulfur No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices: New York Harbor [DDFUELNYH], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/DDFUELNYH, September 20, 2019.

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