Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
U-5 unemployment rate, as defined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).
The BLS defines discouraged workers as persons who are not in the labor force, want and are available for work, and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months. They are not counted as unemployed because they had not searched for work in the prior 4 weeks, for the specific reason that they believed no jobs were available to them.
The BLS criteria for marginally attached workers are the same as for discouraged workers, with the exception that any reason could have been cited for the lack of job search in the prior 4 weeks. The marginally attached are a group that includes discouraged workers.
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Total Unemployed, Plus Discouraged Workers, Plus All Other Marginally Attached Workers, as a Percent of the Civilian Labor Force Plus All Marginally Attached Workers for California [U5UNEM5CA], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/U5UNEM5CA, November 30, 2020.