Source: University of Groningen
Source: University of California, Davis
Release: Penn World Table 10.01
Source ID: xr
When using these data in your research, please make the following reference: Feenstra, Robert C., Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. Timmer (2015), "The Next Generation of the Penn World Table" American Economic Review, 105(10), 3150-3182, available for download at www.ggdc.net/pwt
For more information, see http://www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/.
University of Groningen and University of California, Davis, Exchange Rate (market+estimated) for Kazakhstan [XRNCUSKZA618NRUG], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/XRNCUSKZA618NRUG, March 20, 2023.