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The Hornstein-Kudlyak-Lange Non-Employment Index (NEI) is an alternative to the standard unemployment rate that includes all non-employed individuals and accounts for persistent differences in their labor market attachment. It provides a more comprehensive reading of labor market health and is based on research first published by Richmond Fed economists Andreas Hornstein and Marianna Kudlyak, and McGill University economist Fabian Lange.

Hornstein-Kudlyak-Lange Non-Employment Index (2)

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