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NOTES

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics  

Release: Productivity and Costs  

Units:  Index 2012=100, Seasonally Adjusted

Frequency:  Quarterly

Suggested Citation:

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Business Sector: Labor Share for All Employed Persons [PRS84006173], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/PRS84006173, August 18, 2022.

Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (US)  

Release: G.17 Industrial Production and Capacity Utilization  

Units:  Percent of Capacity, Seasonally Adjusted

Frequency:  Monthly

Notes:

Capacity Utilization: Total Industry (TCU) is the percentage of resources used by corporations and factories to produce goods in manufacturing, mining, and electric and gas utilities for all facilities located in the United States (excluding those in U.S. territories).(1) We can also think of capacity utilization as how much capacity is being used from the total available capacity to produce demanded finished products.

Capacity utilization indexes are constructed for 71 industries in manufacturing, 16 in mining, and 2 in utilities. (1) Physical data on capacity utilization are primarily compiled from trade sources and government sources, such as the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Energy Information Administration.(1) When physical data are unavailable, capacity utilization data are compiled from the U.S. Census Bureau’s Quarterly Survey of Plant Capacity Utilization, which provides data for almost 70 percent of total industry capacity.(1) Additionally, the capacity index is developed on a monthly basis, designed to be consistent with the production index.(1)
According to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, the capacity index tries to conceptualize the idea of sustainable maximum output, which is defined as the highest level of output a plant can sustain within the confines of its resources. The Board of Governors defines the seasonally adjusted capacity utilization rate as the output index divided by the capacity index. The capacity utilization rate can also implicitly describe how efficiently the factors of production (inputs in the production process) are being used. (1) It sheds light on how much more firms can produce without additional costs. Additionally, this rate gives manufacturers some idea as to how much consumer demand they will be able to meet in the future.
The Federal Reserve strives to construct a capacity index consistent with time by using different relevant data sources.(1) Developing an index that is reasonable given the time period is the primary aim for this index, but there are still some difficulties. Extensive technological and structural changes have and will continue to occur, affecting the degree of tightness the Federal Reserve index of capacity utilization will represent.(2) In addition, each series of capacity utilization is flawed by commission; therefore, they should be used with caution.(2)
References
(1) Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. “Industrial Production and Capacity Utilization.” Statistical release G.17;. May 15, 2013.
(2) Bauer, Paul W. and Deily, Mary E. “A User’s Guide to Capacity- Utilization Measures.” Economic Commentary. Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, July 1, 1988; https://www.clevelandfed.org/newsroom-and-events/publications/economic-commentary/economic-commentary-archives/1988-economic-commentaries/ec-19880701-a-users-guide-to-capacity-utilization-measures.aspx.

Suggested Citation:

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (US), Capacity Utilization: Total Index [TCU], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/TCU, August 18, 2022.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics  

Release: Employment Situation  

Units:  Percent, Seasonally Adjusted

Frequency:  Monthly

Notes:

The unemployment rate represents the number of unemployed as a percentage of the labor force. Labor force data are restricted to people 16 years of age and older, who currently reside in 1 of the 50 states or the District of Columbia, who do not reside in institutions (e.g., penal and mental facilities, homes for the aged), and who are not on active duty in the Armed Forces.

This rate is also defined as the U-3 measure of labor underutilization.

The series comes from the 'Current Population Survey (Household Survey)'

The source code is: LNS14000000

Suggested Citation:

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Unemployment Rate [UNRATE], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/UNRATE, August 18, 2022.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics  

Release: Productivity and Costs  

Units:  Index 2012=100, Seasonally Adjusted

Frequency:  Quarterly

Suggested Citation:

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Nonfarm Business Sector: Labor Share for All Employed Persons [PRS85006173], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/PRS85006173, August 18, 2022.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis  

Release: Gross Domestic Product  

Units:  Billions of Chained 2009 Dollars, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Frequency:  Annual

Notes:

This series has been discontinued and will no longer be updated. It was a duplicate of the following series, which will continue to be updated: https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/PCECCA

BEA Account Code: DPCERX1

For more information about this series, please see http://www.bea.gov/national/.

Suggested Citation:

U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Real Personal Consumption Expenditures (DISCONTINUED) [DPCERX1A020NBEA], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/DPCERX1A020NBEA, August 18, 2022.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics  

Release: Employment Situation  

Units:  Thousands of Persons, Seasonally Adjusted

Frequency:  Monthly

Notes:

All Employees: Total Nonfarm, commonly known as Total Nonfarm Payroll, is a measure of the number of U.S. workers in the economy that excludes proprietors, private household employees, unpaid volunteers, farm employees, and the unincorporated self-employed. This measure accounts for approximately 80 percent of the workers who contribute to Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

This measure provides useful insights into the current economic situation because it can represent the number of jobs added or lost in an economy. Increases in employment might indicate that businesses are hiring which might also suggest that businesses are growing. Additionally, those who are newly employed have increased their personal incomes, which means (all else constant) their disposable incomes have also increased, thus fostering further economic expansion.

Generally, the U.S. labor force and levels of employment and unemployment are subject to fluctuations due to seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening and closing of schools. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) adjusts the data to offset the seasonal effects to show non-seasonal changes: for example, women's participation in the labor force; or a general decline in the number of employees, a possible indication of a downturn in the economy. To closely examine seasonal and non-seasonal changes, the BLS releases two monthly statistical measures: the seasonally adjusted All Employees: Total Nonfarm (PAYEMS) and All Employees: Total Nonfarm (PAYNSA), which is not seasonally adjusted.

The series comes from the 'Current Employment Statistics (Establishment Survey).'

The source code is: CES0000000001

Suggested Citation:

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, All Employees, Total Nonfarm [PAYEMS], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/PAYEMS, August 18, 2022.

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