Federal Reserve Economic Data: Your trusted data source since 1991

Brave-Butters-Kelley Real Gross Domestic Product (BBKMGDP)


Sep 2023: 1.98512 (+ more)   Updated: Dec 4, 2023
Sep 2023:  1.98512  
Aug 2023:  4.98614  
Jul 2023:  6.87063  
Jun 2023:  4.91981  
May 2023:  2.82126  
View All


Annualized Percent Change from Preceding Period,
Seasonally Adjusted




Source: Indiana University: Indiana Business Research Center  

Release: Brave-Butters-Kelley Indexes  

Units:  Annualized Percent Change from Preceding Period, Seasonally Adjusted

Frequency:  Monthly


The Brave-Butters-Kelley Indexes (BBKI) are the byproduct of research originally conducted by the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. Currently, the BBKI are maintained and produced by the Indiana Business Research Center at the Kelley School of Business at Indiana University. The BBK Coincident and Leading Indexes and Monthly GDP Growth for the U.S. are constructed from a collapsed dynamic factor analysis of a panel of 490 monthly measures of real economic activity and quarterly real GDP growth.

The BBK Monthly GDP Growth is indexed to the quarterly estimates of real GDP growth from the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis and consists of three components: cycle, trend, and irregular components.

For more details, see also:
Brave, Scott A., Ross Cole, and David Kelley, 2019, A 'big data' view of the U.S. economy: Introducing the Brave-Butters-Kelley Indexes, Chicago Fed Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, No. 422. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.21033/cfl-2019-422
Brave, Scott A., R. Andrew Butters, and David Kelley, 2019, A new 'big data' index of U.S. economic activity, Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, Vol. 43, No. 1. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.21033/ep-2019-1

Suggested Citation:

Indiana University. Indiana Business Research Center, Brave-Butters-Kelley Real Gross Domestic Product [BBKMGDP], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/BBKMGDP, December 5, 2023.


Brave-Butters-Kelley Indexes

Subscribe to the FRED newsletter

Follow us

Back to Top