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Brave-Butters-Kelley Leading Index (BBKMLEIX)


Aug 2021: -0.49961  
Updated: Oct 5, 2021


Standard Deviations,
Seasonally Adjusted


1Y | 5Y | 10Y | Max


Source: Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago  

Release: Brave-Butters-Kelley Indexes  

Units:  Standard Deviations, Seasonally Adjusted

Frequency:  Monthly


The Brave-Butters-Kelley Indexes (BBKI) are a research project of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. The BBK Coincident and Leading Indexes and Monthly GDP Growth for the U.S. are constructed from a collapsed dynamic factor analysis of a panel of 500 monthly measures of real economic activity and quarterly real GDP growth.

The BBK Leading Index is the leading subcomponent of the cycle measured in standard deviation units from trend real GDP growth.

For more details, see also:
Brave, Scott A., Ross Cole, and David Kelley, 2019, A 'big data' view of the U.S. economy: Introducing the Brave-Butters-Kelley Indexes, Chicago Fed Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, No. 422. Crossref,
Brave, Scott A., R. Andrew Butters, and David Kelley, 2019, A new 'big data' index of U.S. economic activity, Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, Vol. 43, No. 1. Crossref,

Suggested Citation:

Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, Brave-Butters-Kelley Leading Index [BBKMLEIX], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis;, October 20, 2021.


Brave-Butters-Kelley Indexes

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